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Geographer’s Toolkit. Geography of Canada. Geographer’s Toolkit. Parts of a Map Map Symbols Mapping Your Location Types of Maps Political Map of Canada Drainage Map of Canada Pear Island Mapping Exercise. What is a Map?.

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geographer s toolkit

Geographer’s Toolkit

Geography of Canada

geographer s toolkit1
Geographer’s Toolkit
  • Parts of a Map
    • Map Symbols
    • Mapping Your Location
  • Types of Maps
  • Political Map of Canada
  • Drainage Map of Canada
  • Pear Island Mapping Exercise
what is a map
What is a Map?
  • A map is a representation of the Earth’s features drawn on a flat surface.
  • Maps use symbols and colours to represent features of an area, simplifying the real world.
features on a map
Features on a Map
  • Title – identifies the area shown, topic, focus, or purpose of the map
  • Legend – explains the meaning of symbols and colours used on the map
  • Scale – represents the relationship between distance on the map and distance in the real world
  • Direction – often represented with an arrow
  • Border – sets the map apart from other information
  • Date of Publication – indicates how recent the map is
map labelling colouring
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Cartography is the art of drawing accurate, easily readable, attractive maps.
  • Labels
    • Should be neatly printed
    • Should be spelled correctly
    • Should be parallel to the base of the map (except for natural features such as rivers and mountain ranges)
    • A dot should be used to locate cities, with the name of the city as close to the dot as possible.
map labelling colouring1
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Labels (continued)
    • Larger features usually have larger labels
    • Labels for similar features should be the same size and font – for example:
      • Water Body
      • City
      • PROVINCE
      • C O U N T R Y
    • Labels should not block other information on the map
map labelling colouring2
Map Labelling & Colouring
  • Colouring
    • Maps should be properly colour coded to show the different areas on the map
    • Shade consistently so that there are no light or dark patches of one colour within one feature
    • Use solid colours only, not shading patterns
    • White or black are not acceptable shading colours
    • Grey should be used for areas not important to the map
    • Blue should only be used for water bodies
points on a compass
Points on a Compass
  • A compass is a way of finding direction
  • The four cardinal points are N, E, S, W
  • The twelve ordinal points are NE, SE, SW, NW, NNE, ENE, ESE, SSE, SSW, WSW, WNW, NNW
  • The points all have corresponding degrees of a circle (0° → 360°)
lines on the earth
Lines on the Earth
  • Latitude
    • imaginary lines that measure the distance north or south of the Equator (0°)
    • lines are parallel to the Equator at regular intervals (approximately 111 kilometres apart)
lines on the earth1
Lines on the Earth
  • Longitude
    • imaginary lines that measure the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian (0°)
    • all lines begin and end at the poles and therefore are not at a fixed distance apart
    • the Prime Meridian (0°) was arbitrarily chosen at a point that runs through Greenwich, England
    • the International Date Line (180°) is the point where one day begins and one day ends
lines on the earth2
Lines on the Earth
  • The Prime Meridian
lines on the earth3
Lines on the Earth

There are 6 time zones in Canada

  • Time Zones
  • Scale shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the actual distance on the Earth’s surface
    • Direct Statement Scale uses words to describe what a distance on a map represents in the real world
      • 1 cm = 10 kilometres
    • Linear Scale uses a special ruler on a map to show what a distance on a map represents in the real world
      • 0 km 400 km
    • Representative Fraction Scale is a ratio where one unit on a map represents a specific number of the same unit in the real world
      • 1:50 000 (1 cm on the map represents 50 000 cm in the real world)
scale mapping our location
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Bowmanville Community Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location1
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Municipality of Clarington Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location2
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Southern Ontario Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location3
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Ontario Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location4
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • Canada Map

You are here!

scale mapping our location5
Scale – Mapping Our Location
  • World Map

You are here!

types of maps
Types of Maps
  • General Purpose Maps
    • A map drawn to scale using symbols and colours to indicate major roads for transportation purposes
    • Often includes parks, hospitals, and tourist attractions
    • Can be both small scale (a country map) and large scale (a city map)
types of maps1
Types of Maps
  • General Purpose Map of the “Golden Horseshoe” (Niagara Falls to Clarington)
types of maps2
Types of Maps
  • Topographic Maps
    • A map that indicates scale, using symbols and colours for both natural and human features on the Earth’s surface
    • Shows the Earth’s surface in great detail (large scale)
    • Depicts the height of land features (topography)
    • Often shows roads, settlements, vegetation cover, power lines, etc.
types of maps3
Types of Maps
  • Topographic Map of Blue Mountain (Collingwood)
types of maps4
Types of Maps
  • Thematic Maps
    • A map that reveals the geographic patterns of statistical data
    • Are designed to display distributions over the Earth’s surface
    • Usually focuses on one theme or topic (e.g., population distribution)
types of maps5
Types of Maps
  • Thematic map showing electricity generating stations in Canada
types of maps6
Types of Maps
  • Digital Maps
    • Computer programs
    • Handheld devices
    • Online
types of maps7
Types of Maps
  • Google Maps is an example of an online map.

types of maps8
Types of Maps
  • Google Earth is an example of a computer program using digital maps.

political map of canada
Political Map of Canada
  • Add to this map:
    • Provinces
    • Territories
    • Capital cities
    • “Other” cities
    • 6 map essentials
    • Different coloured provinces*
    • First and last name

*You CAN use the same colour more than once, so long as it doesn’t touch a province or territory with that same colour.

drainage map of canada
Drainage Map of Canada
  • Add to this map:
    • Oceans, Lakes, Rivers, Bays, and Gulfs as listed on your handout
    • 6 map essentials
    • Canada land coloured green
    • All water coloured blue
    • All other land coloured grey (or beige)
    • First and last name
contour lines rules
Contour Lines & Rules
  • Rules of Contours

1. Contour lines join places of equal elevation.

2. Contours never cross but may touch when they show vertical slope.

3. Contours never end, except at the edge of a map or by joining up with themselves.

4. A standard contour interval (C.I.) is always used (this means there is an equal height between contour lines).

5. The elevation above sea level of some contour lines must be shown.

6. A spot height is an accurately measured point on the earth’s surface showing height above sea level.

  • Defines the topography of the earth’s surface.
  • Denoted in metres above sea level (m.a.s.l)
  • Sea level is always considered 0 m.a.s.l
  • On relief maps (overhead view of a landform), elevation is usually shown by different colours.
  • If a mountain was shown in cross section (from the side) you could see the elevations as follows.(see figure #1)
  • The same mountain from an overhead view would look as follows.(see figure #2)
  • Each colour on a relief map shows all the land that is between two specific heights above sea level (e.g. all green areas would be between 0 and 200 m.a.s.l.)
  • Contours are useful for discovering the shape of the land
  • When contour lines are close together the slope is steep.
  • The closer together the contour lines become, the steeper the slope.
  • If the slope is vertical, the contour lines will come together.
  • When contour lines are far apart the slope is gentle.
  • When contour lines are close together at the bottom of a slope than at the top of it, a convex slope is represented.
  • When the contour lines are closer together at the top of a slope than at the bottom of it, a concave slope is represented.
  • If the contour lines are evenly spaced the slope will be even.
topographic maps
Topographic Maps
  • “Topo” maps show both the natural and man-made features within a selected area.
  • Ex. Lakes, roads, buildings