Geography ToolKit • At the back of your folder or binder, label the last tab as your GEOGRAPHY TOOLKIT • Add these hints and graphics in your toolkit.
Spatial Education > The geographic perspective… • The Rules…. • 1. There are reasons why things are where they are. • 2. There are advantages for things being in appropriate places. • 3. There are consequences for things being in the wrong places.
Ask Where is it? Why is it There? (Who, What, Where, Why, How?) Draw Conclusions. Ask new Questions Find the Information See patterns and connections using maps graphs, charts Use Maps, Graphs, Charts to showinfo.
Famous Geographers – Create a pneumonic device or graphic to help you remember these guys and their contributions to geography • Homer – Why is he famous?? • Hipparchus ?? • Plato ?? • Aristotle ?? • Eratosthenes ?? • Ptolemy ??
Motorboat = Mercator Projection used for navigation/ships Airplane = Azimuthal Projection used by pilots Round = Robinson Projection used in education Map projections- Create a pneumonic device or graphic to help you remember
Remembering Latitude vs Longitude Draw a picture in your toolkit (unit 8) to help you remember latitude. Lat = flat Flat = first (equator) What graphic can you create to remember longitude? (PM) latitude LONGitude latitude latitude Latitude
Mtn peak Mtns Peninsula П Plateau — Plains V Valley Basin Canyon ░ Desert (yellow) ~ River ~Dam Lake -s- Strait -c- Canal —— Country border National capital State capital · City -P- Pipeline -RR- Railroad ------------------------------ Coloring maps Brown – mountain ranges Green – plains, plateaus, peninsulas Yellow(with red dots) – deserts Red – mountain peaks Blue – water bodies Legend Symbols Physical features policitcal features
TODALSIGS/MAP ELEMENTS • TODALS1G1G2S2S3: An abbreviation for the elements required on maps. Most maps we create will require TODALS2S3 only • Title The subject of the map • OrientationCompass. Be sure to include North, South, East, and West. • Date When the map is made • Author Who made the map – you! • Legend What the symbols and colors mean that are used on the map • Scale (S1) Distance used on the unit of measurement • IndexAlphabetical listing of places on the map using lat/long, ABC/123 • Grid (G1)Helps locate places on the map that are listed in the Index. Marked with Latitude and Longitude. • Glossary (G2) Definitions of the features on the map • Source (S2) Bibliographic information, annotation may be required • Surrounding Shows the bordering areas of the map subject. area (S3)
S2/Source info for textbook:Last name of author, first name of author, et.al. Name of book. City and state where published. Publisher. Year. Pages ____
Textbook as source • Arreola, Daniel, et al. World Geography. Evanston, Illinois. McDougall Littell, 2003
M r. HEI L P MOVEMENT of people, goods, ideas REGION: formal, functional, perceptual/vernacular HUMAN/ ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION: adaptations, dependency, changes LOCATION: map skills PLACE: unique characteristics 5 Themes of Geography Pp 5-9
N E S W + OUT/IN and UP/DOWN (different from North/South) What sentence can you create to remember directions? Cardinal Directions on a map N ever E at S oggy W affles….
Economic: the money making of society s Geographic characteristics - ESPN Social/Cultural: the culture/beliefs of people in societies Political: The governing/laws of society Nature and society: interaction between environments and people
Geography concept categories – E S P N – draw this chart in your toolkit
O.S.A.E….can you see? OBSERVE the photo. SPECULATE about what you see. ANALYZE the information. EVALUATE the information. This questioning framework is good for analyzing photos such as those in a textbook, on PowerPoint, Internet, etc
CY FALLS WRITING RULES • Each paragraph is a minimum of 5 sentences. • A paragraph must have a thesis statement/topic sentence. • A paragraph must be written in third person. • A paragraph must be supported with factual data. • A paragraph must use appropriate Social Studies vocabulary.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY HELPERS L A N D CLIMATE FACTORS = L.A.N.D. L ATITUDE A LTITUDE/ELEVATION/TOPOGRAPHY N EARNESS/PROXIMITY TO WATER D IRECTION OF WINDS/CURRENTS
P S O S Goldilocks and Climate = ‘Just Right!’ P eople S ettle O n S hores SETTLEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Elevation = Out The higher the Elevation the colder the temperature. Also known as Altitude Altitude = Away
Rivers…. Are LaZy Rivers flow DOWNHILL, even when they flow north because GRAVITY rules! Example: the Nile.
The Spit wad or Orographic Effect Page 50 Rainshadow
H E I examples • HUMAN ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT • MAKE BUILDINGS ‘SHAKE DON’T BREAK’ IN AN EARTHQUAKE • OH DARN, THERE’S A FLOOD – BUILD A DAM!
Great Lakes S M H E O Super Man Helps Every one
Physical v. Human Geography HEI – where people and the environment meet!
Population equation PEOPLE + TECHNOLOGY = ACCESS TO RESOURCES
PIGS and CITIES • P ort cities • I ndustrial cities • G overnment cities • S pecialization of services(finance, tourism, religion, education….)
The elements of culture.. • Here is an easy way to remember! • ABC’S OF CULTURE • A G • B H • C I • D J • E K • F L
Command vs Free Enterprise R = Right (conservative) FE = Free Enterprise FE is also known as Free Market L = left (liberal) C = Command Command is also Communism
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • ECONOMIC SYSTEMS • MARKET/FREE ENTERPRISE = • ‘FREE CHOICE’, MAKE & SELL WHAT YOU WANT TO • SOCIALISM/MIXED = • MAJOR INDUSTRIES (Airlines, Power company, TV/Radio, Insurance, etc…) OWNED BY GOVERNMENT • COMMAND/COMMUNISM = • GOVERNMENT ‘COMMANDS’ YOU TO WORK, PRODUCE, ETC.. ---------------------------------------------------------- • TRADITIONAL = • LOCAL SMALL SCALE ECONOMY
Subsistence vs Commercial farming • Subsistence = self (make enough for your own family) Found in poorer countries • Commercial = cash (make enough to sell for a profit) Found in richer countries and on plantations in poorer countries
HDI characteristics –LIT/LIFE/ED/MONEY?? LELM??, MELL??, • 4 characteristics • ECONOMIC – • GDP/Per Capita • SOCIAL (2) – • Literacy Rate • Education level required • POPULATION – • Life Expectancy
Peds, Gings, Pings • RICH/DeveloPED • EmerGING • Poor/DeveloPING
H I E – Say ‘HIE’ • HEALTH • INFRASTRUCTURE • EDUCATION
SOL/ standard of living HDI / Human Development Index Social – (2) > LE, Economic > GDP Education > LR Geography Rules > When Babies live (HDI), Babies grow, read, get skills. When Grownups get skills they make money and then grownups live longer. Your Geography Matters…
What makes the world go ‘round? • It’s the MONEY, Honey…..
Using Economic Activities to make a Pencil 1. Primary (resources to use and where each is from) • Secondary • (creating a product in a factory, etc…) • Quaternary • (Research & management, making a better product) • Tertiary • (Services/selling of a product)
Mtn peak Mtns Peninsula П Plateau — Plains V Valley Basin Canyon ░ Desert ~ River ~ Dam Lake -s- Strait -c- Canal —— Country border National capital State capital · City -P- Pipeline -RR- Railroad Legend Symbols
MAP labeling and shading Ink Colors – Maps can be labeled with ink colors as follows…. • GREEN Physical features (mountains, plains, plateaus) • BLUE Features associated with water (lakes, canals, rivers, seas…) • BLACK Political features (Countries, states) • RED Urban areas (cities, capitals, primate cities) Coloring a Map – Specific shading will be required for each map Physical features: As a general rule, use the following colors to shade physical features • BROWN Areas of higher elevation such as mountains ranges, escarpments • GREEN Areas of lower elevation such as plains, plateaus, valleys, peninsulas, forests • YELLOW Areas of low precipitation (Desert). Follow with red dots to emphasize these • areas • RED Areas of highest elevation such as mountain peaks + dots in deserts • BLUE Areas of water such as rivers, seas, oceans, straits… Political Shading: Alternate shading of the countries so that no country of one color borders another of that color. DO NOT SHADE COUNTRIES BLUE.