COT : African Trade with Eurasia West and East Ghana-Songhai Axum-Swahili city-states
From stateless Societies to Empires the Desire for Sudanic Gold Permeated the period, the Arab Slave trade will Also begin this Period and Continue through The 20th century Africa During the Post classical Period East Coast begins As Christian Kingdom of Axum est Mediterranean And Red Sea Trade with Rome Later Byzantine Only to move Inward once Muslim invaders Come in and Integrate into Coastal (Swahili) City-states
Common Elements in African Societies Bantu migration(ends 1000 C.E) Animism lineage important in relation with god (matrilineal) Women elevated in society (bridewealth) The Arrival of Islam in North Africa Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711) Berber Almoravids Almohads succeed Berbers, 12th century Kingdom of mali est. 13thhce providing 2/3 of World’s gold The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and EthiopiaCopts Egyptian Christians spread to Nubia (Kush) Ethiopia-interior migration after Muslim expansion African Kingdom Similarities and Differences
Kingdoms of the Grasslands Caravans Sahel - transfer point Sudanic States Rulers sacred Islam The Empire of Mali Malinke peoples from Ghana Agriculture, gold trade Sundiata (d.1260) the “Lion Prince” mansa (ruler) expanded state Mansa Kankan Musa pilgrimage Ishal al-Sahili (Sp. Architect) beaten clay architecture Established city of Timbuktu (Islamic Scholarship flourishes) Empires of Africa Empires of the Western Sudan
City Dwellers and Villagers Jenne, Timbuktu thrive with expansion Some merchants Religious diffusion? Majority farmers The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao) Middle Niger valley Independent by 700 Muslim by 1010 Sunni Ali (1464-1492) Hausa states, northern Nigeria Muslim center Political and Social Life in the Sudanic States Fusion of traditions African Kingdoms
Swahili Coast The Swahili Coast • The Swahili Coast of East Africa • Trading ports • Muslim influence • Cultural diffusion and synthesis • The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar) • Don’t need to know, just be familiar • Madagascar • SEA imports • Blended culture (Bantu-Arabic-India)
Swahili Coast (cont’d) • The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili Coast • Islam unifies • Other Characteristics • Egalitarian/homogenous to cosmopolitan/diverse • Key Exports & Imports (interior African goods for exterior Eurasian good) • Two distinct “trading seasons” • Connection to China? • When did this exchange with China end?