Phonetics LI 2023 Nathalie F. Martin
Contemporary Linguistics: p. 2. Made to Speak • ________: to supply air for speech • _____________: to produce vibrations for speech sounds • ________: to articulate vowels and consonants • ________: to provide place of articulation • ________: to articulate vowels and consonants • ________: to provide nasal resonance during speech
Contemporary Linguistics Analysis: p. 2. 1.1 Specialization for Language
Introduction Spoken Language • Language can be spoken, written, manually signed, mechanically reproduced and synthesized by computer • Spoken language is the main way humans express themselves • Humans ________before they ________ • Reason why linguists ________with the study of spoken rather than written language
Phonetics • Definition: • The study of the ________and ________of the sounds of speech. • Analyzes the ________of all human speech sounds, • ________________________.
Approaches to Phonetics • Articulatory phonetics • Studies the _______________________of speech production • Acoustic phonetics • Measuring and analyzing the physical properties of the _____________we produce when we speak
Phones • Definition: • ______________ • Infinite or finite possibilities of sounds? • ____________ • The possibilities of sounds is limited by the vocal tract • According to one estimate: 600 consonants and 200 vowels
Units of representation • Break up the flow of speech into individual sounds • Segments (individual phones or speech sounds) • Syllables • Nota: • Some writing systems are phonetic and syllabic
International Phonetic Alphabet • The IPA is a system of ________ • Represent ________of human speech with a _______________ • « One sound, one symbol » • Important: Enclosed in ________________
Explore the IPA • Go through pronunciation of words • Do you notice any difference between these sounds? • Nota bene: Sometimes two phonemes need to be used to represent a vowel. • IPA • Look at the information mentioned • What are the classifications mentioned in the consonant chart?
IPA Transcription • Broad transcription • Uses a _____________set of symbols to represent _________________but does not show all ________ • Narrow transcription • Show ______________using an ________set of symbols • Here are fonts that you will need to see the IPA symbols:
Contemporary Linguistics: p. 635. IPA Diacritics • « Marks added to a phonetic symbol to alter its value in some way » • Example: a circle under a symbol to indicate voicelessness. • See your IPA chart • http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~danhall/phonetics/sammy
For help with phonetics Linking sounds to symbols: IPA Help, SIL International http://www.sil.org/computing/speechtools/ipahelp.htm Identifying articulatory features: Interactive Sagittal Section, Daniel Hall, University of Toronto http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~danhall/phonetics/sammy Practice transcribing:
Specialization for Language:Made to Speak http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
Contemporary Linguistics: p. 17. Sound-Producing System Features • Segments are produced by coordinating a number of individual articulatory gestures including: • ________ • ________ • ________
Sound-producing System • Sound is produced when air is ____________ • Sets of ______modify the sound in various ways
Sound-producing system • Lungs • Vocal cords (or vocal ________) • Larynx (vocal folds are within larynx) (the velum is the soft area Towards the rear of the roof of the mouth)
Sound-producing system Three filters: • Pharynx (the tube between the larynx and the oral cavity) • Oral cavity • Nasal cavity
Sound-producing system Glottal States • ________: Space between the vocal folds • Vocal folds may be ________in a number of ways to produce different ________________
Glottal States Voicelessness • When the vocal folds are ________. • The air passes ________________the glottis. • Any sound produced when the folds are in this position are said to be voiceless. • Put your fingertips to your larynx. • Fish • Sing • House
Glottal States Voicing • When the vocal folds are _______________, but ________________. • Air passes through and causes them to _______. • Any sound produced when the folds are in this position are said to be voiced. • Put your fingertips to your larynx. • Zip • Vow • Or any vowel
Glottal States Whisper • Whispering is voiceless. • No vibration of the cords. • The vocal cords are ________ ________ (though ________________________).
Glottal States Murmur • Known as a breathy voice • Murmuring is voiced • Vibration of the vocal cords • Vocal folds are ________to allow air to escape to produce a breathy effect.
Sound Classes Consonants Vowels Glides
Sound classes Consonants • Articulatory difference: • May be ________________ • May be made with either a ________________or a ________of the vocal tract • The airflow is either ________momentarily or ________so much that the noise is produced as air flows past the constriction. • Consonants cannot be the _______________
Sound classes Vowels • Articulatory difference: • Vowels are produced with ________________in the vocal tract and are usually ________ • Acoustic Difference: • Vowels are more ________ (acoustically powerful) • Perceived as louder and longer lasting • Vowels can be the ________of a syllable.
Sound classes Glides • Shows properties of ________________ • May be thought of a ________ ________ (auditory impression they produce) • Produced with an ________like that of a vowel • Glides can never be the ________of a syllable • Aka. ________________, ___________
The Tongue • Primary articulation organ • It can be: • Raised, lowered, thrust forward, retracted or rolled back • Five areas of the tongue: • Tip, blade, body, back and root
Consonants Place of Articulation • Also called ________________ • Each point at which air stream can be _______to produce a different sound is called a place of articulation • Places of articulation are found at the ____, within the ________, in the ________and at the ________.
Place of articulation Labial • Any sound made with closure or near-closure of the ______is said to be labial. • Bilabial: sounds involving ________ • Example: • Labiodental: sounds involving the ________ and the ________ • Example: http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
Place of articulation Dental and interdental • Sounds produced with the tongue placed ______ or ________the ________ • Example: European French (temps, dire, sept, zizi) • Interdental: Produced with the tongue _______ the ________ • Example: The words thing & this
Place of articulation Alveolar • Sounds produced when the tongue ________or is brought ________to the _______________ • Example: + Spanish “r” = [r] http://www.uiowa.edu:80/~acadtech/phonetics/spanish/frameset.html (Lingual-alveolar)
Place of articulation Alveopalatal & palatal • Alveopalatal area: Just behind the alveolar ridge the roof of the mouth _______sharply • Alveopalatal consonants: • Example: Show, measure, chip & judge • Palatal glide: • Example: Yes & yours
Place of articulation Velar • Velum: ____area towards the ____of the mouth • Velar: Sounds produced with tongue touching or near this position • Example: Call, guy & hang • Labiovelar: Sounds produced with ________ ________ and the ________at the same time • _____ like in wet
Place of articulation Uvular • Uvula: Small fleshly ________that hangs down from the ________. • Uvular: Sounds produced with the tongue touching or near this position. • None in English • European French « r » = [R]
Place of articulation Pharyngeal Pharynx: Area of the ________between the uvula and the larynx. Sounds made through the modification of the air flow in the pharynx by ________________or ________________________ • [ʕ] • Example: The Arabic letter « ع » like in Jesus
Place of articulation Glottal • Sounds produced using the ________as primary articulation • Example: Hog, heave
Manner of articulation Oral vs Nasal • Oral: Velum is ________cutting of the airflow to the nasal passages • Nasal: Velum is ________to allow air to pass ________the nasal passages • Both consonants ([n] [m] [ŋ]) and vowels ([ã] [õ] etc.) can be nasal and are generally voiced • Example: Sun, sum, sung • No nasal vowels in English
Manner of articulation Stops • Stops are made with a ______________either in the oral cavity or at the glottis • In English: Bilabial, alveolar and velar oral and nasal stops • [p], [b], [m], [t], [d], [n], [k], [g], [ŋ] & [ʔ] • Examples: Glottal stop in the sound [ʔ] like in the expression uh-uh (meaning “no”) or like in some British dialects [ʔ] is heard instead of a “t” (example: bottle)
Manner of articulation Fricatives • Fricatives: Consonants produced with a ________________through the mouth • Part of a larger class called continuants • English fricatives: • [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [ʃ], [ʒ] & [h]
Manner of articulation Affricates • Affricate: Non-continuous consonant that show a ________________________. • Affication: A process in which palatalized stops become afficates • [ʧ] & [ʤ] • Example: Church & Jogging
Manner of articulation Voice Lag and Aspiration • Lag: After the release of certain voiceless stops in English, you can hear a lag or brief delay before voicing the following vowel • Aspiration: Since the lag in the onset of vocalic voicing is accompanied by the ________ • Transcribed with a small [h] • Examples: pat [phæt], tub [thʌb] and cope [ khowp] • Examples of unaspirated: spat [spæt], stub [stʌb] and cope [ skowp]
Manner of articulation Liquids • Different variants of « r » and « l » • Lateral: Varieties of « l » • As laterals are articulated, air escapes through the mouth ________the lowered ________of the tongue • English « r » • ________the tongue tip back into the mouth or by ________the tongue upwards and back in the mouth
Manner of articulation Liquids (continued) • English « r » • Retroflex [ɹ] or [r] = Curling the tongue tip back into the mouth or by bunching the tongue upwards and back in the mouth • Example: car & ride • Transcribed as [r] in textbook • Flap [ɾ] = Tongue tip ________the ______________ as it passes across it • Example: North American pronunciation of bitter & butter