Which of the following must always be measured or described relative to something else? • size • motion • acceleration • mass
When the Sun and the Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth, what will the tide be like at the position indicated by the arrow in the image above? • very high • medium • high • very low
Which of the following would happen if the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface decreased?i. The amount of plant life would decrease.ii. The population of primary consumers would decrease.iii. The population of secondary consumers would decrease.iv. The population of decomposers would permanently increase. • i, ii, and iv only • i, ii, iii, and iv • i, ii, and iii only • i and ii only
The body of each organism is organized in a certain manner. Which of the following shows the organization of the body from the simplest level to the most complex level? • tissue --> cell --> organ system --> organ --> organism • organism --> organ system --> organ --> tissue --> cell • organ --> tissue --> cell --> organ system --> organism • cell --> tissue --> organ --> organ system --> organism
Jeffery has a 1.0-gram sample of baking soda and a 5.0-gram sample of vinegar. He combines the two samples in a sealed plastic bag. The baking soda and vinegar react, releasing bubbles and heat. After the reaction is complete, Jeffery measures the mass of the bag's contents. The bag's contents should measure ______. • 6.0 grams • 5.0 grams • 7.0 grams • 1.0 grams
In a certain ecosystem, foxes hunt and kill rabbits for food. The interaction between foxes and rabbits in this ecosystem can best be described as a _______ relationship. • parasite/host • predator/prey • decomposer/prey • producer/consumer
Which part of a cell allows nutrients and other materials to enter or leave the cell? • nucleus • chloroplast • cell membrane • cytoplasm
Olive observes a system in nature. She identifies two important variables. She measures each variable at the same time every day. At the end of a month, Olive graphs the values she measured for each variable every day. • changes in variables a and b are both caused by the same thing. • changes in variable b cause changes in variable a • changes in variable a cause changes in variable b • all of these
The Sun's gravitational pull keeps the _______ in their orbits, just as a planet's gravitational pull keeps its _______ in their orbits. • stars; moons • moons; stars • planets; moons • planets; stars
Which of the following is a true statement about hypotheses? • Even if hypotheses are not supported by data, they can still be valuable. • It is not possible to test hypotheses through scientific investigations. • Data collected during scientific investigations must always support hypotheses. • If data does not agree with a hypothesis, the hypothesis should be changed to match the data.
Jack wants to know if it takes longer for warm water to freeze into ice cubes than cold water, so he performed the following experiment.Jack placed 50 mL of water in the refrigerator and allowed it to cool to a temperature of 4°C. Then, he heated 50 mL of water to a temperature of 40°C. Jack then used a pipette to distribute 5 mL of cold water into each well of an ice cube tray. He repeated this procedure with the warm water. Then, he placed both ice cube trays side by side in a freezer and monitored how long it took for the cubes to freeze.What is the test variable (independent variable) in Jack's experiment? • the amount of water that was placed in each well • the temperature of the freezer • the initial temperature of the water • the time it took for the cubes to freeze
Based on the weather map above, rain and thunderstorms are associated mostly with _______ and _______ systems. • cold fronts; high-pressure • cold fronts; low-pressure • warm fronts; low-pressure • warm fronts; high-pressure
Which of the following is true about asteroids? • Asteroids orbit the Earth, which means they can never collide with the Earth. • No asteroids cross the Earth's orbit as they orbit the Sun. • Asteroids orbit the Sun, and some of them can cross the Earth's orbit. • All asteroids cross the Earth's orbit as they orbit the Sun.
About 1.7% of the water on Earth is in its solid form. Most of this water is located at high elevations or • in the western hemisphere. • near the equator. • near the south pole and equator. • near the north and south poles.
How does the genetic material of the daughter cell compare to the genetic material of the parent cell? • It contains half of the genes from the parent cell. • It is an exact copy. • It contains 75% of the genes from the parent cell. • It contains no genetic information from the parent.
The molecules that make up living things are made up of • only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. • mostly organic elements. • all the elements that naturally occur on Earth in roughly equal amounts. • large amounts of a few different elements and very small amounts of many others.
Which of the following devices typically transforms electrical energy into sound, visible light, and thermal energy? • a blender • a loudspeaker • a light bulb • a television
Which of the following is an inherited trait in humans? • clothing style • eye color • geographical location • activity level
Which of the following move(s) elements and compounds among different Earth systems, such as the atmosphere, organisms, and the solid Earth? • carbon cycle • water cycle • nitrogen cycle • all of these
Which of the following is an example of kinetic energy in nature? • the energy contained in the bonds of a sugar molecule • the energy of flowing water in a mountain stream • the stored energy of a boulder at the top of a cliff • the energy that builds up when friction prevents rocks from moving along a fault
_______ is a type of relationship or interaction between two organisms that benefits both organisms. • Mutualism • Predation • Competition • Parasitism
The MOST DIFFICULT problem to overcome in the issue of using fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas, is that • fossil fuels take millions of years to form. • no one wants to use alternative fuels. • fossil fuels are the only fuels that work in cars. • fossil fuels are very expensive.
Which of the following is a renewable source of energy? • oil • natural gas • coal • wind
Which kind of rock is produced bydeposition and cementation? • marble, a metamorphic rock • sandstone, a sedimentary rock • Granite, an intrusive igneous rock • Pumice, an extrusive igneous rock
Which action demonstrates achemical change? • Long hair is cut and dried. • A wooden pencil is sharpened and breaks. • An ice cube melts and becomes a clear liquid. • An iron nail becomes orange and flaky on the surface.
Aphids are a common plant-pest insect. They alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction. During the summer, aphid populations grow quickly by asexual reproduction. As winter approaches, aphids switch to sexual reproduction. What advantage does the switch to sexual reproduction give the aphids? • Sexual reproduction maintains a constant level of variation in the population and requires less energy. • Sexual reproduction decreases variation in the population and prevents the spread of harmful mutations. • Sexual reproduction increases variation in the population and provides for adaptability in a changing environment. • Sexual reproduction produces individuals that are clones and allows rapid population growth under stable environmental conditions.
Short Answer Practice • Aphids, ants and plants interact with one another through symbiotic relationships. Aphids are small insects that poke holes in plants and suck out sap. Aphids may cause the plant’s leaves to wilt and curl. Ants protect aphids and eat the sugary liquid that aphids produce. In your Answer Document, choose two of the organisms in this symbiosis. Describe the relationship between the two organisms in terms of the benefit or harm to each organism. (2 points)