Interpersonal managerial roles: • a representative role; • a leadership role; • the role of the link (connector) between people.
Informational managerial roles: • the role of the monitor; • the role of the disseminator; • the role of the spokesperson.
The decision-making roles of the manager • the role of the entrepreneur/initiator; • the anti-disturbance role; • the role of resources divisor; • the role of the negotiator.
The additional roles necessary in the public service • the role of the consensus architect; • the role of a local affairs promoter; • the role of an interpreter of local values; • the role of an example of ethical behaviour; • the role of a co-executor of local authority.
managerial skills • Technical skills • Socialskills • Conceptualskills
Basic managerialfunctions: • planning • organisation (organising) • stimulation (alsoknown as motivatingorleading) • control
The organic functions of the position are functions, for which this position is intended, especially organised and equipped.
Examples of organic functions of managerial positions: • informing the team of employees about the intentions and requirements of the superior levels; • giving the superior level all necessary information concerning the situation in the managed unit; • taking care of the proper organization of the unit subordinate to the head of the unit; • motivation;
Examples of organic functions of managerial positions: • training of subordinates; • self-development.
Organic functions are not the same as the scope of responsibilities. If there are incompatibilities, they can be removed in two ways: • by transferring non-organic duties to other positions where they will fit into organic functions; • by appropriate reorganisation of the considered position, e.g. by extending its powers or increasing the available resources.
Is it permissible for a manager to carry out work that is part of organic functions of positions of his or her subordinates? Exemplary situations: • when, in order to better evaluate the work of subordinates (belonging to the organic functions of a manager) performs their work to familiarise themselves with its specificity; • in order to train an employee.
B. Management (or Leadership) styles The style of leadership (management) is all the ways in which a superior affects his or her subordinates in order to induce them to fulfil their organisational roles.
A distinction between the style of leadershipand the strategy of leadership.
Distinguishing the potential and actual leadership style The potential management style is a set of methods and techniques of influencing subordinates, which, in his opinion, should be used for the most efficient performance of the accepted roles of the superior. The actual style of leadership is a system of methods and techniques actually applied, determined by the current goals set for the manager by his superiors and the circumstances in which they have to be implemented.
The basic assumptions of X theory: • the average person has a natural aversion to work and tries to avoid it whenever possible; this involves convincing many managers that their main duty is to overcome this aversion; • people do not like responsibility and prefer to be managed; they do not have too much ambition; the most important thing for them is safety in their positions.
The consequences of adopting the X theory are: • as a rule, recognition of the need to formalise the organisational structure very strictly, • centralisation of decisions, resulting in rigorous and detailed following of instructions and strict monitoring of compliance with them, • not anticipating the slightest independence of the performers, not taking any initiative on their part, • emphasis on almost exclusive penalties with almost complete abandonment of awards.
The Y theory is based on the assumption that: • work is a natural human need - physical and mental effort at work is as natural as in play or leisure; • modern man, treated properly and placed in conditions corresponding to his psychophysical abilities, not only willingly works and accepts responsibility, but also seeks it; at the same time, he wants to be independent and prefers self-control; • shows creativity and initiative needed to solve the organisation's problems.
Consequences of the adoption of Y theory: • less formalism, • a wide range of decentralisation, • less strict and less detailed but general and synthetic supervision, focusing more on results than on work technology, • considerable independence of contractors, • stimulating staff initiative, • the use of rewards rather than penalties.
theory of human resources or theory of human capabilities (possibilities) • man is the most important value in an organisation • attention is paid to respect for human creativity • the manager is obliged to create conditions for the personal development of the employee, which requires giving the employee a certain degree of freedom • education is the goal and duty of an individual member of the organization, and at the same time it is a part of the goals and tasks of the organization
Autocratic and democratic styles In short, the autocratic style is a consequence of the adoption of the X theory, so that the manager using this style tends to concentrate all decisions in his own hands and minimise the margin of freedom of subordinates, while the democratic style is a consequence of the adoption of the Y theory, so that the manager consults most of his or her decisions with co-workers in this style.
Symptoms of autocratic behaviour of managers: • the removal of subordinates from participation in decision making, • taking action without taking the views of the group into account, • detailed definition of tasks and working methods of subordinates, which does not allow them to decide on their own and show initiative, • changing the scope of duties without consulting a subordinate, • uncompromising operation.
Symptoms of democratic behaviour of managers: • seeking approval from subordinates before implementing various changes, • discussing matters concerning their group with subordinates, • informing subordinates of their progress and evaluations, • explaining his or her attitudes and intentions to subordinates, • allowing subordinates to participate in decision making.
Richard Rutkaliststhree basic styles ofleadership: • the autocratic style - the lack of influence of subordinates on the division of tasks and methods of their implementation; the superior does not inform subordinates about the goals of the team's work, but only about tasks or even instructions. • the consultative style - the superior allows subordinates to participate in deciding on the division of tasks and how to achieve them but only in preparationphase. • democratic management - subordinates participate on an equal basis not only in the preparatory phase of the decision-making process, but also participate collectively in the division of tasks and determine how they should be carried out.
Exercise: do the statements fit the democratic or autocratic way of thinking of managers? • I have to overcome the natural reluctance of subordinates to work. • I have to control not only the results, but also the way the subordinates perform their tasks. Otherwise they will certainly make mistakes and the organization's goals will not be achieved. • Delegating authority will improve the work of the whole team and at the same time will allow for the development of subordinates and increase their motivation to work.
Exercise: do the statements fit the democratic or autocratic way of thinking of managers? • In order to obtain the desired behavior of subordinates, penalties are much more useful than rewards. • My subordinates should know if they are making progress and how their work is evaluated. • I need to develop a system for obtaining ideas and initiatives from subordinates. • I can make a rational decision myself without the help of my subordinates.
Exercise: do the statements fit the democratic or autocratic way of thinking of managers? • My decisions will be more rational and optimal if I involve my subordinates in the decision-making process at least at the stage of obtaining information and searching for decision-making alternatives. • Although I am responsible for the effectiveness of the team I lead, subordinates will certainly be more willing to contribute to the organization's goals if I create an atmosphere of co-responsibility for the success of the team.
Exercise: do the statements fit the democratic or autocratic way of thinking of managers? • I cannot delegate tasks that require a creative approach to my subordinates, because I am still fully responsible for the success of my subordinate team. Apart from that, no one would be able to cope with such tasks. • My subordinates must be given the best possible conditions to demonstrate their skills and creative approach to work. • I only control the end result of a subordinate's work, leaving the subordinate free to choose the technique. • In order to obtain the desired behaviour of subordinates, I must first of all use rewards, not penalties.
The concept of "management style grid" (by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mounton) – people and tasks • impoverished style (little concern for people and tasks) • club style (high concern for people, small tasks) • balanced style (average concern for both people and tasks) • authoritative style (low concern for people, but big for tasks) • team style (high concern for both people and tasks), preferred in this concept
The triangle of areas of interest Results 1 6 5 7 2 3 4 Manager Contractors
basic management styles: • absolutistic, • narcissistic, • paternalistic, • concentrative, • participatory, • technocratic, • managing.
basic workmanship styles: • hardworking, • rebellious, • obedient, • co-operative, • submissive, • independent, • partner.
Summary The confrontation of management styles with workmanship styles leads to the conclusion that they may be more or less compatible with each other. Taking into account both limited compatibility and complete incompatibility of managerial and workmanship styles, it should be noted that the most common difficulties in the "manager-contractor" layout occur with regard to absolutistic, narcissistic and paternalisticmanagerial styles, as well as rebellious and independentworkmanship styles. The choice of a specific style may therefore be varied not only depending on the situation and the degree of complexity of the tasks, but also in relation to individual subordinates.