Public Administration 3.2 Defensible Space: A New Physical Planning Tool for the Urban Revitalization
What is defensible space? What does defensible space associate with? What could defensible could be? definition supposition association Defensible Space relationship How is defensible space related to PA?
Association: military brick walls Defensible Space barred windows high fences
Defensible space is the area between a house and an oncoming wildfire where the vegetation has been modified to reduce the wildfire threat and to provide an opportunity for firefighters to effectively defend the house. Sometimes, a defensible space is simply a homeowner’s properly maintained backyard.
Oscar Newman & His Concept Oscar Newman is an registered architect and city planner, known internationally for his work in community planning, assisted housing, crime prevention, and racial integration.
Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space Concept • Why is the term “defensible space” used by Oscar Newman? • What is it used for by him ? • How did it evolve? • How does he prove that his defensible space concept could work?
Evolution of Defensible Space Concept: Pruitt-Igoe and Carr Square Village row-house complex high-rise public housing
Pruitt-Igoe 普吕特-艾戈尔 • What is Pruitt-Igoe housing project? • What plagued Pruitt-Igoe? • Why was it torn down some ten years after its construction? • What is it viewed as nowadays? Why?
Carr Square Village • Why could it remain fully occupied and trouble-free throughout construction, occupancy, and decline of Pruitt-Igoe? • What enabled Carr Square Village to survive while Pruitt-Igoe fell apart?
Three Projects: Five Oaks Clason Point Yonkers The stabilization of half-square-mile, racially and economically changing, inner city neighborhood in Dayton, Ohio. The modification of a public housing project to stimulate proprietary attitudes in residents in the South Bronx, New York The integration of public housing welfare residents into white middle-class neighborhoods in Yonkers, New York
What is defensible space? • subdivides large portions of public spaces and assigns them to individuals and small groups to use and control as their own private areas. • gives low-income families a self-respect they never had before; and an opportunity to become part of the social mainstream. • gives people a new respect for the work and territory of others by giving them territory of their own to prize and to wish to see respected.
What is defensible space? • relies on self-help rather than on government intervention. • depends on resident involvement to reduce crime and remove the presence of criminals. • maintains racial and economic integration • stimulates private reinvestment
Word Association: walkups public housing ghetto slum inner city council house housing highrises row house chateaux townhouse terraced house castle
Word Grouping: • public housing 公寓 — Housing that is built, operated, and owned by a government and that is typically provided at nominal rent to the needy. 主要以平价租给贫民的由政府修建、经营并所有的住宅 • slum 贫民区 — A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor. 人口稠密的城市地区，以低于法定标准的住房和贫穷为特征。
Word Grouping: • inner city 内城区 • ghetto （某些阶层、集体的）聚居区 — a part of a city where people of a particular race or class, especially people who are poor, live separately from the rest of the people in the city. This word is sometimes considered offensive. Inner city is now more common than ghetto. — the part near the middle of a city, especially where the buildings are in a bad condition and the people are poor
Collocation: district blocks apartment building high-rise flats development buildings housing project
buildings exterior areas interior areas grounds streets parking lots play areas lobbies stairs corridors elevators laundry rooms storage garbage (chute)
Word Group: Similar/related words: • deteriorate/go to pot/decline/fall apart/come apart • pockets/enclaves • complex/development/community/project • revitalize/rehabilitate/retrain/retribution • trouble-free/crime-free
Discussion: • Pruitt-Igoe & Carr Square Village • The whole development of Pruitt-Igoe& occasional pockets • high-rise apartments for higher-income families & public housing • St. Louis&chateaux Compare these buildings/places and list the similarity & dissimilarity between them to see what lies behind the decline/survival of them.
Oral/Written Report: • Make a survey in your city to see whether there are such buildings as Pruiit Igoe or Carr Square village. • Make a case study of these buildings to find out the reasons for their decline or survival (attach pictures) • Solutions (whether Newman’s defensible space can work or not) Write a report on your case study.
Language points 1. yield to让位于，被…取代, 放弃 e.g. • The hijackers refuse to yield to demands to release the passengers. • Further action may be necessary if the leaders do not yield to diplomatic pressure . • This is not a reason why district ethics committees should yield to pressure to abdicate their responsibilities to local citizens.
Language points 2. deteriorate― to become worse e.g. • It was a marriage made in heaven that seemed to deteriorate to hell in a hurry. • Some of the vacant buildings may have deteriorated to such a condition that restoration costs would be prohibitive. • During the hearing the court received information that W.'s condition had deteriorated to a serious extent. Noun: deterioration
Language points 3. salvageable— capable of being saved from ruin salvagev. ― to save something from an accident or bad situation in which other things have already been damaged, destroyed, or lost e.g. Retailing and tourism can't salvage an ailing economy. The one real consolation that could be salvaged from the whole sorry affair was that the system had worked in the end.
Language points 4. sea change —a marked transformation e.g. • One effect of this sea change in the way the world works is the diminishing value of manual labor. • If the Court holds fast to its abnegation of this traditional role, it could mark a sea change in federal-state relations.
Language points 5. revitalize ― to put new strength or power into somethinge.g. • The attempt to revitalize shareholder democracy in this fashion is doomed to failure in the large public company. • Building there, he said, would encourage redevelopment of aging city blocks and revitalize the area. • They hope to revitalize the neighborhood by providing better housing. synonym: revive n. -- revitalization
Language points 6. retribution ―severe punishment for something very serious e.g. • Employees need to be able to express their feelings without fear of retribution. • Some officials felt that the bombings were retribution for the killing of the hijackers. • The earthquake was seen by some people as divine retribution.
Language points cf redistribution — the act of redistributing something, especially money or land e.g. • One significant cause has been a redistribution of income towards richer people on a scale without parallel this century. • Policies of economic redistribution to the less well off met with resistance from skilled workers at a time of low economic growth. • Servicing private capital in this way is usually a matter of job redistribution rather than job creation.
Language points 7. address — if you address a problem, you start trying to solve it e.g. • These protections addressed issues ranging from the death penalty and homosexual rights to term limits, campaign-finance reform, and congressional redistricting. • At a minimum, they can force the issue back on to the political agenda and make Republicans publicly address the subject again. • As to serious and organised crime, in the 1990s we must address the subject of police structure with greater enthusiasm.
Language points 8. high riseadj. — high-rise buildings are tall buildings with many levels high-rise blocks high-rise district high-rise apartment building high-rise flats • Residents can do nothing with high-rise buildings once they are completed. • Lord James Douglas-Hamilton My right hon. Friend takes the question of security in high-rise housing very seriously. Antonym: low rise
Language points 9. go to pot (informal) ―if something such as a place or an organization goes to pot, it becomes much worse or fails because no one is taking care of it e.g. • Montreal was powdering its face and putting on lipstick while infrastructure was going to pot. • My God, they've really let the house go to pot. • Many people's good intentions go to pot as Ian Cocking does the work virtually single handed.
Language points 10. vandalize — to damage or destroy things deliberately, especially public property e.g. • All the public telephones in the area had been vandalized. • They would not have to worry about their car being vandalized or stolen from a car park. • In comments to the media, Riggs had said protesters vandalized his office and assaulted his employees. n. vandalism
Language points 11. occupancy ―the number of people who stay, work, or live in a room or building at the same time e.g. • The occupancy rate of the hotel had dropped to about one in four rooms last year. • In terms of housing standards and occupancy rates, conditions have improved considerably during the course of this century. • Extra beds in studios and apartments are often required to be moved between units according to occupancy levels.
Language points occupant — someone who lives in a house, room etc • Occupants of the building are understandably upset about the high-rise going up next door. • Police are still trying to trace the occupants of the house which was destroyed by fire. synonym: resident
Language points 12. tear down phrasal verb ―to destroy a building deliberately e.g. Some of the oldest blocks had already been torn down with the promise that new, moderate-income housing would be put up. Thousands of other business buildings and homes have been strengthened or, in some cases, torn down as unsafe.
Language points 13. identify • identify with (phrasal verb) — to think that someone is very closely related to or involved with something Otherwise, polluters identified with specific sites had to pay the entire cost of those sites' cleanup themselves. That politician is too closely identified with the former government to become a minister in ours. We can all identify with these people in their desire for freedom and independence.
Language points identify — to recognize something or discover exactly what it is, what its nature or origin is etc e.g. Researchers have identified the substances which can cause allergies. The airline says it will be difficult to identify all the bodies retrieved from the crash. An element of public accountability can also be identified in the recurrent attentions of elected Members of Parliament.
Language points 14. demarcate ―to decide or mark the limits of an area, system etc e.g. • The police demarcated the city into eighteen geographical divisions, the gangs and races into thousands. • The retained building, says Farrell, performs an urban function in demarcating two distinct zones within the square.
Language points 15. given prep. ―taking something into account • Given the circumstances, you've done really well. • Given the number of people we invited, I'm surprised so few came. • Given that the patients have some disabilities, we still try to enable them to be as independent as possible.
Language points 16. exclusive — available or belonging only to particular people, and not shared e.g. • In a Roman view ownership meant the unconditional and exclusive use of property by the individual. • Directors were given the exclusive right to manage the day-to-day business of the company.
Language points 17. oblivious — not knowing about or not noticing something that is happening around you oblivious of/to • It ran across my screen on its own free will, oblivious to my commands. • He appeared totally oblivious of her presence and didn't even look up as far as she was aware. synonym: unaware
Pruitt-Igoe: 普吕特-艾戈尔 现代建筑于1972年7月15日下午3点32分（或者这一时刻前后）在密苏里州圣路易斯市死亡当时人们用炸药进行coup de grace，最后清除了臭名昭著的普吕特-艾戈尔工程（Pruitt-Igoe Scheme，一个为低收入家庭设计的住房建设项目），或者说其中几个用混凝土预制板建成的大楼…… 这个住宅工程采用了纯粹派的风格，干净整洁，有益健康，可与医院相媲美，意在通过这样一种良好的榜样给居民灌输相应的美德风尚。良好的形式旨在造成良好的内容，至少是良好的行为。对抽象的空间进行了精心的规划，旨在促进健康的行为 …… 哎呀，这些过分简单化的想法沿袭了唯理主义、行为主义和实用主义的哲学原理，就像这些哲学本身就不合理一样，这些想法也被证明是荒谬的。