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  1. Air Quality Issues FAA Office of Airports Planning and EnvironmentalDivision To: 32nd AEA Annual Airports Conference Hershey, PA By: Jake A. Plante Date: March 4, 2009

  2. Air Quality Management Cycle EPA sets health-based standards EPA designates nonattainment areas States monitorair quality States propose plans (SIPs) to EPA States implement plans Conformity regulations

  3. Standard Primary (Human Health) Secondary (H. Welfare) Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 Hour Average 1 Hour Average 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) N/A N/A Particulate Matter(PM10) 24 Hour Average 150 g/m3 150 g/m3 Particulate Matter (PM2.5) 24-Hour Standard Annual Arithmetic Ave. 35 g/m3 15 g/m3 35 g/m3 15 g/m3 Ozone (O3) 8 Hour Average 0.075 ppm 0.075 ppm Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Annual Average 24 Hour Average 3 Hour Average 80 g/m3 365 g/m3 N/A N/A N/A 1300 g/m3 Lead Calendar Quarter Average 0.15 g/m3 0.15 g/m3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Annual Average 0.053 ppm (100 g/m3) 0.053 ppm National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  4. 8-hr. standard of 0.075 ppm replaced 0.08 ppm Consequences More airports have to do general conformity More stringent classifications (i.e., less project emissions) EPA area designations due March 2010 New 2008 Ozone (O3) Standard

  5. 156 of 527 Commercial Service Airports are in Nonattainment Areas Pollutants of greatest concern

  6. EPA area designations issued in December PM2.5 has 4 precursors: SO2 and NOx (standard) and VOCs and Ammonia (if requested by EPA or State) New New 2007 PM2.5 Standard 2008 Lead (Pb) Standard • 90% more stringent • More state monitoring • Piston-engine aircraft is last mobile source to use leaded fuels • DOT estimates 58 airports will be affected, includinga few of the nation’s busiest (e.g., Van Nuys, CA) • More analysis for GA & air taxi? (Lead estimates via EDMS fuel burn) • EPA area designations due this fall

  7. AEA Commercial Service AirportsNonattainment and Maintenance Status Ozone CO PM10 PM2.5 Source: VALE website

  8. - No new violations - No increase in the frequencyor severity of existing violations - No delay in timely attainment General Conformity Process Ensures that Federal Actionsdon’t interfere with SIPs Federal Action Nonattainment or Maintenance Area? Exempt? Routine maintenance, etc. 15 non-runway project categories: small upgrades and system improvements that do not change the capacity or operational environment of the airport (i.e., emissions) Presumed to Conform? Emissions Inventory?

  9. Emissions Inventory • Use EDMS model • All airport sources, including construction • Are “net” project emissions (tpy) above de minimis levels?

  10. De Minimis Levels(AEA levels in blue and red)

  11. Dispersion Analysis(not common) • Use EDMS model • 5-years of weather data • Are concentrations above the NAAQS?

  12. Action is exempt, presumed to conform, or de minimis Project emissions are in the SIP Accounted for specifically Covered in a broader category (e.g., mobile sources, construction) or as part of a highway transportation plan Added by the State Emissions are offset Modeling to show that local pollutants (e.g., CO) don’t violate the NAAQS Conformity Demonstration Options

  13. Federal agencies may allowemission budgets for airportsand other facilities Harmonizing projectand SIP out-years EPA proposes “flat line” assumption using last SIP budget year Emissions growth may be handled by States in a future SIP Construction emissions Can be added to an airport budget or presumed to conform list Possible EPA incentives for clean construction equipment Exemption for ATC procedures above mixing height EPA General Conformity Revisions (Final rule expected this Spring)

  14. FAA AirportSpeciated HC Guidance New Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) guidance and research 2008 • Literature review • Measurement studies • Airport sources, toxicity, health risk • R&D recommendations Due in April • FAA airport guidelines • on when and how to do a HAPs inventory • Discusses all airport sources

  15. No national standards Scientific uncertainties and limitations of HAPs data and methodology must be discussed Analysis is limited to a HAPs inventory No extension of findings (toxicity, pop. exposure, or health risk) Results may compared with regional inventories and ambient monitoring results if they exist. No comparison with other airport inventories (e.g., ORD, LAX, OAK) Place HAPs inventory in a technical appendix not “Environmental Consequences” chapter Contact APP-400 for AEE coordination and updates Current HAPs Policy

  16. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)and Climate Change • No national standards or criteria through the Clean Air Act, Executive Order, etc. • Current NEPA approach • Aircraft CO2 is calculated in EDMS 5.1 and can be used for a GHG inventory • No approved methodology for computing other airport sources • Use AEE/APP recommended text and percentage comparisons of airport-to-national operations • GHG ACRP research report expected this month • CEQ and EPA guidance needed

  17. VALE began in 2005Targets all on and off-road ground emission sourcesat commercial service airports in nonattainment or maintenance areas

  18. Improves airport air quality Current “Cars-Off-the-Road-Equivalent” (CORE) value of 4,500 cars and trucks eliminated per year Increases AIP/PFC eligibility and funding for clean technology Incentivizes early action with emission credits Reduces operational and fuel costs Promotes domestic alternative fuels Promotes good relations with air quality agencies and the public VALE Program Benefits

  19. Past, Present, and Future Activity ROC ALB SWF DTW HPN PHL BWI SMF DIA SFO SJC DFW BTR IAH HOU VALE Interested Sponsors ILEAV Pilot Program

  20. VALE Program Annual Funding AIP VALE Funding(Millions) 7.5 Part A

  21. Federal Funding Sources for VALE PFCs$2.7 Billion in CY ‘07 AIP$3.4 Billion in FY ‘07 Discretionary30% Entitlements70% ‘noise and air quality set-aside’ is 35% of discretionary budget Economic Recovery$1.1 Billion in FY ‘09 Discretionary

  22. VALE eGSE Projectat Philadelphia with US Airways and United

  23. Gate Electrification and PCAat IAH, DTW, PHL, SJC, SWF, ERI Eligible Infrastructure: Gate Electrification Gate Power & Pre-Conditioned Air to reduceAPUusage

  24. Underground Fuel Hydrant Systemsat Detroit North Terminaland Houston (IAH) Terminal B To replacetanker trucks

  25. Automated People Moverat Houston (IAH) between Terminal A and Other Terminals

  26. New & Retrofit Vehicles that meetVALE Low-Emission Standards (e.g., hybrids at Houston)

  27. New and Upgraded CNG Stations and CNG Shuttlesat Rochester and Albany NY

  28. HVAC Systems (e.g., geothermal)and Clean Power Linked to Airport Emission Reductions

  29. Required Coordination with State Air Quality Agencies for Emission Reduction Credits (AERCs) New VALE Applicationto FAA and State AERC usein NEPA actions State letter of assurance on credits 1 3 StateReview Airporttracking FAA projectapproval 2 Credit Statement Equipment ordersand deployment Updated emissionreduction analysis

  30. VALE web site for more information… Google “FAA VALE” or • New VALE brochure • New list of eligible airports