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Air Quality Issues. FAA Office of Airports Planning and Environmental Division. To: 32 nd AEA Annual Airports Conference Hershey, PA By: Jake A. Plante Date: March 4, 2009. Air Quality Management Cycle. EPA sets health-based standards. EPA designates nonattainment areas.

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Air quality issues

Air Quality Issues

FAA Office of Airports

Planning and EnvironmentalDivision

To: 32nd AEA Annual Airports Conference

Hershey, PA

By: Jake A. Plante

Date: March 4, 2009

Air quality issues

Air Quality Management Cycle

EPA sets health-based standards

EPA designates nonattainment areas

States monitorair quality

States propose plans (SIPs) to EPA

States implement plans

Conformity regulations

Air quality issues



(Human Health)


(H. Welfare)

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

8 Hour Average

1 Hour Average

9 ppm (10 mg/m3)

35 ppm (40 mg/m3)



Particulate Matter(PM10)

24 Hour Average

150 g/m3

150 g/m3

Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

24-Hour Standard

Annual Arithmetic Ave.

35 g/m3

15 g/m3

35 g/m3

15 g/m3

Ozone (O3)

8 Hour Average

0.075 ppm

0.075 ppm

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Annual Average

24 Hour Average

3 Hour Average

80 g/m3

365 g/m3




1300 g/m3


Calendar Quarter Average

0.15 g/m3

0.15 g/m3

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Annual Average

0.053 ppm (100 g/m3)

0.053 ppm

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

New 2008 ozone o 3 standard

8-hr. standard of 0.075 ppm replaced 0.08 ppm


More airports have to do general conformity

More stringent classifications (i.e., less project emissions)

EPA area designations due March 2010

New 2008 Ozone (O3) Standard

Air quality issues

156 of 527 Commercial Service Airports are in



Pollutants of greatest concern

Air quality issues

EPA area designations issued in December

PM2.5 has 4 precursors: SO2 and NOx (standard) and VOCs and Ammonia (if requested by EPA or State)



2007 PM2.5 Standard

2008 Lead (Pb) Standard

  • 90% more stringent

  • More state monitoring

  • Piston-engine aircraft is last mobile source to use leaded fuels

    • DOT estimates 58 airports will be affected, includinga few of the nation’s busiest (e.g., Van Nuys, CA)

    • More analysis for GA & air taxi? (Lead estimates via EDMS fuel burn)

  • EPA area designations due this fall

  • Air quality issues

    AEA Commercial Service AirportsNonattainment and Maintenance Status





    Source: VALE website

    Air quality issues

    - No new violations

    - No increase in the frequencyor severity of existing violations

    - No delay in timely attainment

    General Conformity Process

    Ensures that Federal Actionsdon’t interfere with SIPs

    Federal Action

    Nonattainment or Maintenance Area?


    Routine maintenance, etc.

    15 non-runway project categories: small upgrades and system improvements that do not change the capacity or operational environment of the airport (i.e., emissions)

    Presumed to Conform?

    Emissions Inventory?

    Air quality issues

    Emissions Inventory

    • Use EDMS model

    • All airport sources, including construction

    • Are “net” project emissions (tpy) above de minimis levels?

    Air quality issues

    De Minimis Levels(AEA levels in blue and red)

    Air quality issues

    Dispersion Analysis(not common)

    • Use EDMS model

    • 5-years of weather data

    • Are concentrations above the NAAQS?

    Conformity demonstration options

    Action is exempt, presumed to conform, or de minimis

    Project emissions are in the SIP

    Accounted for specifically

    Covered in a broader category (e.g., mobile sources, construction) or as part of a highway transportation plan

    Added by the State

    Emissions are offset

    Modeling to show that local pollutants (e.g., CO) don’t violate the NAAQS

    Conformity Demonstration Options

    Epa general conformity revisions final rule expected this spring

    Federal agencies may allowemission budgets for airportsand other facilities

    Harmonizing projectand SIP out-years

    EPA proposes “flat line” assumption using last SIP budget year

    Emissions growth may be handled by States in a future SIP

    Construction emissions

    Can be added to an airport budget or presumed to conform list

    Possible EPA incentives for clean construction equipment

    Exemption for ATC procedures above mixing height

    EPA General Conformity Revisions (Final rule expected this Spring)

    Air quality issues

    FAA AirportSpeciated HC Guidance

    New Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) guidance and research


    • Literature review

    • Measurement studies

    • Airport sources, toxicity, health risk

    • R&D recommendations

    Due in April

    • FAA airport guidelines

    • on when and how to do a HAPs inventory

    • Discusses all airport sources

    Air quality issues

    No national standards

    Scientific uncertainties and limitations of HAPs data and methodology must be discussed

    Analysis is limited to a HAPs inventory

    No extension of findings (toxicity, pop. exposure, or health risk)

    Results may compared with regional inventories and ambient monitoring results if they exist.

    No comparison with other airport inventories (e.g., ORD, LAX, OAK)

    Place HAPs inventory in a technical appendix not “Environmental Consequences” chapter

    Contact APP-400 for AEE coordination and updates

    Current HAPs Policy

    Air quality issues

    Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)and Climate Change

    • No national standards or criteria through the Clean Air Act, Executive Order, etc.

    • Current NEPA approach

      • Aircraft CO2 is calculated in EDMS 5.1 and can be used for a GHG inventory

        • No approved methodology for computing other airport sources

      • Use AEE/APP recommended text and percentage comparisons of airport-to-national operations

  • GHG ACRP research report expected this month

  • CEQ and EPA guidance needed

  • Air quality issues

    VALE began in 2005Targets all on and off-road ground emission sourcesat commercial service airports in nonattainment or maintenance areas

    Air quality issues

    Improves airport air quality

    Current “Cars-Off-the-Road-Equivalent” (CORE) value of 4,500 cars and trucks eliminated per year

    Increases AIP/PFC eligibility and funding for clean technology

    Incentivizes early action with emission credits

    Reduces operational and fuel costs

    Promotes domestic alternative fuels

    Promotes good relations with air quality agencies and the public

    VALE Program Benefits

    Air quality issues

    Past, Present, and Future Activity

















    Interested Sponsors

    ILEAV Pilot Program

    Air quality issues

    VALE Program Annual Funding

    AIP VALE Funding(Millions)


    Part A

    Air quality issues

    Federal Funding Sources for VALE

    PFCs$2.7 Billion in CY ‘07

    AIP$3.4 Billion in FY ‘07



    ‘noise and air quality set-aside’

    is 35% of discretionary budget

    Economic Recovery$1.1 Billion in FY ‘09


    Air quality issues

    VALE eGSE Projectat Philadelphia with US Airways and United

    Eligible infrastructure gate electrification

    Gate Electrification and PCAat IAH, DTW, PHL, SJC, SWF, ERI

    Eligible Infrastructure: Gate Electrification

    Gate Power

    & Pre-Conditioned Air

    to reduceAPUusage

    Underground fuel hydrant systems at detroit north terminal and houston iah terminal b
    Underground Fuel Hydrant Systemsat Detroit North Terminaland Houston (IAH) Terminal B

    To replacetanker trucks

    Automated people mover at houston iah between terminal a and other terminals
    Automated People Moverat Houston (IAH) between Terminal A and Other Terminals

    Air quality issues

    New & Retrofit Vehicles that meetVALE Low-Emission Standards (e.g., hybrids at Houston)

    Air quality issues

    HVAC Systems (e.g., geothermal)and Clean Power Linked to Airport Emission Reductions

    Air quality issues

    Required Coordination with State Air Quality Agencies for Emission Reduction Credits (AERCs)


    VALE Applicationto FAA and State

    AERC usein NEPA actions

    State letter of assurance on credits





    FAA projectapproval


    Credit Statement

    Equipment ordersand deployment

    Updated emissionreduction analysis

    Air quality issues

    VALE web site for more information… Emission Reduction Credits (AERCs)

    Google “FAA VALE” or

    • New VALE brochure

    • New list of eligible airports