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Development of Pre-Service Teachers’ Questioning Practice Through Self-Analysis. Stephanie B. Philipp University of Louisville and Melissa L. Shirley University of Louisville. Model for Focus of Study. This study examines pre-service teacher’s analysis of classroom discourse.

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development of pre service teachers questioning practice through self analysis
Development of Pre-Service Teachers’ Questioning Practice Through Self-Analysis

Stephanie B. Philipp

University of Louisville

and

Melissa L. Shirley

University of Louisville

model for focus of study
Model for Focus of Study

This study examines pre-service teacher’s analysis of classroom discourse.

research questions
Research Questions
  • What do PSTs choose to analyze about questioning?
  • What strategies do PSTs suggest to improve questioning practice?
study context
Study Context
  • 25 middle/secondary science methods students
  • 13 enrolled in alternative certification program (working as full-time teachers) and
  • 12 traditional Certification program (30-hour field placement during semester)
data collection
Data Collection
  • Audio-tape and transcribe a 10-minute segment of whole-class discussion
  • Choose two aspects of questioning
  • Propose strategies for self-improvement
  • Upload student work to secure course management system
data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Starting with questioning skill categories from the literature, two coders independently coded a subsample of analyses
  • Additional codes emerged
  • Codes were reconciled and applied to remainder of transcript analyses
  • The process was repeated for proposed strategy categories
whole class questioning skill examples
Whole-Class Questioning Skill Examples
  • Questions requiring higher order thinking (HOT) Redfield & Rousseau (1981); Gall (1984)
  • Awareness of processing time (Rowe, 1974)
  • Recognition of participation by all students (Tobin & Gallagher, 1987)
questioning aspect codes rq1
Questioning Aspect Codes (RQ1)
  • Higher Order Thinking (HOT)
      • Bloom’s Taxonomy
      • Webb’s Depth of Knowledge
  • Wait Time
  • Participation By All
  • Engagement
  • Follow-up
  • Classroom Affect
questioning aspects traditional certification program pst
Questioning Aspects: Traditional Certification Program PST

“I did not realize I asked low-level questions during the entire class until analyzing this transcript.” (08HSTrad)

questioning aspects alternative certification program pst
Questioning Aspects: Alternative Certification Program PST

“Without high-quality responses from students, the connections they are able to make to the subject matter is severely limited…This problem goes hand in hand with my lack of high-order questions.” (28HSAlt)

questioning aspects alternative certification program pst1
Questioning Aspects: Alternative Certification Program PST

“It is difficult to address questions with a class where only a small portion of the students can hear.  I cannot give students enough wait time to ponder questions because I spend any down time addressing discipline.” (05MSAlt)

questioning aspects alternative certification program pst2
Questioning Aspects: Alternative Certification Program PST

“I spent almost two of ten minutes waiting for my class to quiet down to the point where we could finish discussion. This is far too much instructional time.” (17MSAlt)

selection of questioning aspects
Selection of Questioning Aspects

Assertion 1

Teaching context may affect the focus of the PST’s choice for analysis.

strategies proposed for improvement of practice rq2
Strategies Proposed for Improvement of Practice (RQ2)
  • Advance question planning (56%)
  • Monitor participation by all students (56%)
  • Improve instructional techniques (40%)
  • Improve feedback (32%)
  • Increase interactive discussion (32%) and teach interactive discussion skills (12%)
  • Improve classroom management skills (24%)
strategies proposed for improvement of practice1
Strategies proposed for improvement of practice

Intentional Practice

“I will prepare a question guide before the lesson to help direct students in higher level of thinking.” (04MSTrad)

strategies proposed for improvement of practice2
Strategies proposed for improvement of practice

Planning

“I think time invested at the beginning of the year [regarding] my expectations for discussions would be helpful.”(13MSTrad)

strategies proposed for improvement of practice3
Strategies proposed for improvement of practice

Intentional Practice

“To improve this questioning practice, I plan on … constantly checking for understanding formatively through thumbs up/thumbs down, stoplight, agree/disagree, etc.”(20MSAlt)

20

strategies proposed for improvement of practice4
Strategies proposed for improvement of practice

Assertion 2

Analysis of questioning practice convinced PSTs of the importance of planning and intentional practices as a strategy for improving questioning practice.

the power of self reflection
The Power of Self-Reflection

PSTs were often surprised by aspects of their teaching practice after reflection on their own teaching

surprising insights gained by pst
Surprising insights gained by PST

“It is amazing what you can learn from listening to yourself. I could not believe how many times I said the word "Right”. If I were a student, I would be sick of it.” (18HSAlt)

surprising insights gained by pst1
Surprising insights gained by PST

“It occurred to me as I listened to the tape that only seven out of 30 students spoke. Not only do I have no idea what those other twenty-three students know, no one in the class was able to benefit from their input.” (21MSAlt)

surprising insights gained by pst2
Surprising insights gained by PST

“In the background I could hear chatter, chatter that I must block out while I'm standing at the front of the class. I did not notice when I was teaching but it was there, on tape.” (18HSAlt)

acknowledging need for change
Acknowledging need for change

PSTs acknowledged need for change and dedicated their efforts to transforming their own practice.

acknowledging need for change1
Acknowledging need for change

“Overall, this transcript allowed me to see myself in a way that I had not seen before: through the ears of an observer….I plan on taping another session in the upcoming months to evaluate my progress.” (26MSAlt)

acknowledging need for change2
Acknowledging need for change

“The lesson I learned is that high level questioning is dependent on careful and thoughtful planning for each lesson.” (15MSTrad)

what s next
What’s Next?
  • Comparison to other content areas
  • A model for other pedagogical skills development
questions

Questions?

And thank you for your kind attention.

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