Decline of the Republic…Rise of the Empire Ancient Rome Mr. Blais
Slave Revolt • While the Roman govt was in disarray one of the worst slave revolts in Roman history happened in 73 B.C.E. • It was led by a gladiator (slave who fought for public entertainment) named Spartacus • He escaped from his training facility and began rallying slaves across the Roman world to his cause.
Slave Revolt (cont.) • Within a year Spartacus had an army of 100,000. • His army ravaged Italy for two years and defeated a least four major Roman generals and their armies. • Finally in 71 B.C.E. Marcus Licinius Crassus was given command of the army and crushed the revolt in 6 months. • Approximately 6,000 of the rebels were crucified along the main road to Rome as a warning to all who dared challenge Rome.
Marcus Licinius Crassus • After putting down the slave revolt Crassus was elected consul of Rome in 70 B.C.E. • He shared power with a good friend Pompey • Crassus was a skilled military commander and was a very wealthy man who made his money dealing in slaves and making sound investments. • He would later become the money behind the throne of later the Republican govt
GneiusPompeius Magnus • Better known as Pompey or Pompey the Great he was elected consul in 70 B.C.E. • Pompey had led a military life, fighting in earlier civil wars • He later became a household name in Rome with his victory over Mithradates of Pontus (A major foe in the east) • Thus gaining many new provinces for Rome throughout modern Turkey and Syria
Gaius Julius Caesar • Caesar was born to a noble Roman family in 100 B.C.E. • At about age 18 he left Rome (due to political turmoil) and joined the army in the east. • He spent his early years their fighting Rome’s enemies and getting an education. • Using his new found skills in military and political matters Caesar became the financial officer of Spain in 68 B.C.E.
Gaius Julius Caesar (cont.) • Caesar married Pompeia (cousin of Pompey) in 68 B.C.E., thus beginning their important friendship. • Caesar spent about 6 years in Spain putting down rebels, reorganizing the govt., and sending large sums of money to the treasury of Rome. • Both Caesar and Pompey returned to Rome around 61 B.C.E. as well known and popular political figures.
The First Triumvirate • Caesar, though hated by the Senate, had the support of the people • Pompey, a good friend and wife to Caesar’s daughter Julia, had support of the army. • With Crassus’ money these three men created a political alliance to gain greater wealth and power for each of them • This culminated in Caesar’s election as consul in 59 B.C.E.
59 B.C.E. • As consul Caesar now had the ability to push his own agenda. • He reworked the Agrarian Laws and distributed large tracts of land to the common people, particularly Pompey’s veterans • By 58 B.C.E. the Senate made him governor of Gaul, mostly in an effort to get Caesar out of Rome
Caesar’s Murder • Caesar was murdered on March 15, 44 B.C.E. • His murder was led and organized by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus • Cassius hated Caesar and Brutus hated tyranny • Caesar’s death led to chaos and riots across Rome, the conspirators were forced to flee the city and much of their property was destroyed.
Solidifying Power • Caesar’s named heir was Gaius Octavius (his 19 year old nephew) • Octavius allied with Marc Antony (Caesar’s most trusted general) in a war against Caesar’s murderers • In November, 42 B.C.E. the two armies met. Cassius and Brutus were each separately defeated by Antony and Octavius. • The Republic had now officially fallen!
East and West • Antony and Octavius now divided the empire, Octavius in the west and Antony in the east • Over the next ten years they each solidified their power in their realms and Antony formed an alliance with Cleopatra of Egypt. • Octavius would use this political alliance to destroy Antony’s character in Rome and as justification to go to war with Antony.
Rise of the Empire • Antony and Cleopatra met Octavius in the naval battle of Actium (31 B.C.E). • Octavius’ forces won the battle and Antony and Cleopatra retreated to Egypt. • Over the next year Octavius’ armies slowly took the eastern provinces back from Antony. • This all culminated in the suicides of Antony and Cleopatra in 30 B.C.E. giving Octavius full control of the Roman Empire