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Instructional Technology UNCW MIT. Ray Pastore, Ph.D. University of North Carolina Wilmington. Introduction. The following presentation will address projects that I have been working on in the instructional technology dept . here at UNCW Mobile Learning Gaming Time compressed instruction

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Instructional technology uncw mit

Instructional Technology UNCW MIT

Ray Pastore, Ph.D.

University of North Carolina Wilmington


  • The following presentation will address projects that I have been working on in the instructional technology dept. here at UNCW

    • Mobile Learning

    • Gaming

    • Time compressed instruction

    • Online learning

    • Multimedia

    • Virtual Classrooms

What is mobile learning
What is Mobile Learning?

  • Stevens and Kitchenham (2011) define mobile learning as

    “the use of a wireless handheld device; a cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), mini-computer, or iPod to engage in some form of meaningful learning (p.3)”.

What we are building in our courses
What we are building in our courses

Mobile Apps

  • Need to be installed

  • Can be on OS

  • Device dependent 

  • May cost money

  • Can use phone features (gps etc.)

  • Do NOT require internet

Mobile Websites

  • Can be used on any phone with internet

  • Not on OS

  • free (for the most part) 

  • Need to open browser

  • Difficulty accessing phone features (GPS etc).

Being used in education for
Being used in education for

  • to view or send content or email

  • participate in discussion forums

  • submit and view assignments

  • send/receive feedback

  • enrolling in courses (higher ed)

  • communication

  • texting

  • emergency warning systems


Being used in corporations gov for
Being used in corporations/gov for

  • Everything on the previous slide plus….

    • Gaming

    • Simulations

    • Full courses

    • Flash based content

    • HTML5 based content

      *This is where education is headed and

      Education innovators are already doing


Mobile learning1
Mobile Learning

Mobile learning is in it's infancy

Research on mobile use and design is just starting to emerge

Much of this research focuses on mobile use rather than mobile devices for learning  

The purpose of our first research study on mobile learning was to examine students perceptions of developing and using instruction for the mobile web


  • Study took place at the University of North Carolina Wilmington

  • Instructional Technology graduate students

  • Design

    • Interviews (6 Students interviewed - semi structured interviews)

    • Observations (Graduate Class observed)

    • Role of observer: Instructor

    • Survey (Survey on mobile use, learning, and satisfaction)

Instructional technology uncw mit

  • Computer Based Instruction course at UNCW

    • Develop mobile based instruction via Dreamweaver

    •   Students were web development novice

    •   Students were presented lesson on web and mobile development using Dreamweaver (3 Class periods)

    •   They were asked to read several articles on mobile learning

  • Assignment

    • 10 minute instructional tutorials to be developed for smartphones

    • Published to UNCW webspace

    • Tested sites on iPod touches

Instructional technology uncw mit

Example Screens

Sample quotes from interviews
Sample quotes from interviews

  • "I think the differences from going from that where you use a keyboard and a mouse to the touch is that you realize how big your fingers are and just a link is not going to be very effective anymore. You need big buttons. You need to direct the learner on where they need to touch to go to the next screen. There is really no pop ups, no imbedded flash type things, its like going from one screen to the next. It seems very linear. “

  • "I don’t know that you’re going to be able to do a lot other than just quick reference job aids. I’m not sure you’d want to have a whole instructional system through the, for the iPhone, though maybe,, a SmartPhone. You could do it for maybe tablets, but again you’ve got some Flash limitations. So I would think that job aids and things that you can learn quickly are the realm of smart phone development."

Time compression1
Time Compression

  • In today’s fast paced digital world, time is a luxury.

  • Normal speech rate is between 120-180 words per minute (Monroe & Ehninger, 1974) and averages around 150 words per minute (Benz, 1971)

  • The average reading speed for adults is around 280 wpm (Taylor, Frankenpohl, & Pettee, 1960)

  • This gives reading a timesavings advantage in a computer based training (CBT) environment

    • So what does this mean for the modality effect? – takes longer

    • Do we ignore it because we want ‘rapid’ training?

      • NO – Maybe we can listen as fast as we can read!

Time compression2
Time Compression

  • Recent research has revealed that audio can be compressed up to a certain point and still support high level learning (Pastore, 2009)

  • What is Time Compressed Speech? (Orr & Friedman, 1967)

    • The act of changing the tempo while preserving the pitch and retaining quality

    • Invariant timing hypothesis (Honing, 2007).

      • This hypothesis states that one cannot distinguish between the quality of audio when there is a tempo change (within normal wpm ranges and up to a certain point of compression).

    • Pastore (2009) revealed that spoken words could be digitally time-compressed up to 25% in a multimedia environment while preserving complex learning.

    • Thus, a one-hour multimedia session could take 45 minutes if time-compressed 25% and still maintain the same level of learner comprehension.

Time compression3
Time Compression

  • Design - 2x3 Experimental Design

    • Independent Variables -

      • Redundant and Non-redundant

      • Compressed Instruction - 0%, 25%, 50%

Time compression4
Time Compression

  • Compression (Tukey’s HSD for post hoc)

    • 0% (11.82) = 25% (11.02) > 50% (8.63) - factual

    • 0% (8.84) = 25% (8.25) > 50% (6.02) - Problem solving

    • *numbers indicate means; out of 20 points.





Adobe Flash


Online learning how to teach online
Online Learning: How to teach online

Developing courses via Moodle

Students learn how to manage their own LMS like Blackboard

They then learn best practices for implementing these course

Design and develop their owncourses


Virtual classrooms
Virtual Classrooms

Teach all of our classes via webex

Students can choose to attend in the class or go online

Classes tend to be 50/50

Instructional strategies not sacrificed

Currently writing a paper as adept on students preferences

We are working on many other things as well
We are working on many other things as well….

Multimedia development

Web development

Mobile app design

Interface design

Competencies in the field

Social media


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