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The Present Progressive:. In Spanish we use the Present Progressive tense to talk about "what is happening at that moment" I n English we use gerunds, or words that end in "-ing" I am playing basketball. I am eating tacos. She is sleeping.

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The Present Progressive:

In Spanish we use the Present Progressive tense to talk about "what is happening at that moment"

In English we use gerunds, or words that end in "-ing"

I am playing basketball. I am eating tacos. She is sleeping.

However, unlike in English, if the action is ongoing, you would not use the present progressive in Spanish. You would simply use the regular present tense.

Example:María is studying medicine at UNC ->> María estudia la medicina a UNC.

**The present progressive is used for things happening at that moment, and although she studies medicine, she may not be studying at that moment...**


So how do we form the present progressive, Srta. Dixon?

Good question... Let's look at a phrase in English, and translate it into the present progressive...





I amplayingbasketball.

Yo estoy jugando el baloncesto.







Present Participle:

You form the present participle by taking the AR/ER/IR endings off the verb and adding -ANDO/-IENDO

-ar --> -ando

-er --> -iendo

-ir --> -iendo


estudiar --> estudiando

comer --> comiendo

escribir --> escribiendo


Of course there are some verbs that do not follow the regular pattern:

-ir stem-changing verbs that stem-change e-ie or e-i in the present also stem-change in the present participle but only make an e-i change.

sentir --> sintiendo (to feel)

pedir --> pidiendo

venir --> viniendo

decir --> diciendo

-ir stem-changing verbs that stem-change o-ue in the present also stem-change in the present participle but only make an o-u change.

dormir --> durmiendo

morir --> muriendo

*poder --> pudiendo 
(*poder is the only -er verb to make such a change.)


-ar and all other -er verbs DO NOT stem-change in the present participle

pensar --> pensando

jugar --> jugando

volver --> volviendo

devolver --> devolviendo

The verbs ir and oír and also verbs that end with -aer, -eer and -uir 
(but NOT -guir) have present participles that end with -yendo.(The i changes to y.)

ir (to go) --> yendo

oír (to hear) --> oyendo

traer (to bring) --> trayendo

leer (to read) --> leyendo

huir (to flee/run away) --> huyendo

seguir (to follow/continue) --> siguiendo <---stays the same


Práctica con el presente progresivo:

Use a dictionary to look up words


John is writing a letter.

Edwin is eating a salad.

Stephanie and Kathryn are reading some books.

They are not listening to the teacher.

She is going to the movies.

The soccer players are playing soccer.

He is sleeping in the class.

I am washing the dog.

Jim is making the bed.

We are learning the present progressive.


Más práctica.....

Ella ____________ (leer) la Biblia.

Yo ________ (escribir) una carta para mi papá.

Tú __________ (leer) un libro.

Nosotros ____________ (oír) la radio.

Papá _________ (traer) el gato al veterinario.

Los perros ___________ (comer) el carne.

Mamá ___________ (correr) en el parque.

John ____________ (hacer) la tarea.

Edwin y Juan _________ (ir) al zoológico.

Luis y Roberto _____________ (lavar) los platos.

Yo ____________ (cerrar) la puerta.

Ella ______________ (bailar) con Paco.


Possession in Spanish...

In Spanish there are NO apostrophes.

You cannot say:

 Jorge’s perro (George's dog)

You must say:

El perro de Jorge (The dog of George)


de + Noun

Tengo el cuaderno de Felipe.

I have the notebook of Felipe.

I have Felipe'snotebook.


La hermanade Maria es bonita.

The sister ofMaria is pretty.

Maria's sister is pretty.


Translate the following:

1. Mark's birthday is in June.

2. Ms. Dixon's dog is white.


Possessive Adjectives:

(Our) nuestro a, os, as

Your (formal)

(My) mi / mis

(Your) tu / tus



Your formal)


su / sus

su / sus



Singular- Mi Mi libroMy Book

Plural- Mis MislibrosMy Books

My sister: ____ hermana My brothers: ____ hermanos


Singular- Tu Tu libroYour Book

Plural- Tus Tus librosYour Books

Your sister: ____ hermana Your brothers: ____ hermanos



Singular- Su Su libroHis/Her/Your Book

Plural- Sus SuslibrosHis/Her/Your Books

His sister: ____ hermana His brothers: ____ hermanos


**Noun + Possessive Adjective Agreement!**



Singular- Nuestro Nuestro libroOur Book

Plural- Nuestros NuestroslibrosOur Books


Singular- Nuestra Nuestra mochilaOur Backpack

Plural- Nuestras NuestrasmochilasOur Backpacks



Singular- Su Su libroTheir Book

Plural- Sus SuslibrosTheir Books


Some examples:

mi perro mis perros

tu libro tus libros

su amigo sus amigos

nuestro gato nuestros gatos

nuestra blusa nuestras blusas



1. My backpack is blue and green.

2. Our clothing is new (nuevo).

3. Your cat is orange.

4. Your dogs are white.

5. Our homework is hard (difícil).


Possessive pronouns

Pronouns take the place of nouns.  

Possessive pronouns are pronouns that show ownership andtake the place of the noun.

For instance, the possessive pronoun “mine” can take the place of “my book”.

Possessive Adjective v. Pronouns

Adjective: My book is on the table

Pronoun: Mine is on the table.

Adjective: Your car is green.

Pronoun: Yours is green.

Adjective: Their house is the third house.

Pronoun: Theirs is the third house.

Remember Possesive Adjectives from Spanish 1:

My – mi(s)

Your – tu(s)

His, Her, Your (formal) – su(s)

Our – nuestro(a)(s)

Their, Your (formal) – su(s)


Possessive pronouns

Pronouns take the place of nouns.  

For instance, the possessive pronoun “mine” can take the place of “my book”.


Each pronoun has four forms.

The form of the pronoun agrees with the thing possessed, not with the possessor.

Possessive pronouns must agree in


2. gender (FEMININE OR MASCULINE) with the noun they are replacing.

Su chaqueta es roja, pero la mía es azul

His jacket is red, but mine is blue.


Since el suyo has many meanings, you can avoid confusion by subsitituting el de, la de, los de, las de plus the appropriate pronoun. 

For example:  

· mi pluma y la de ella (la suya) (My pen and hers)

· mis libros y los de usted (los suyos) (My books and yours)  


After any form of the verb ser, the article (el, la, los, las) is generally omitted if you are just showing possession.

Por ejemplo:

· El libro es mío (not "...el mío").

· Las revistas son tuyas.

· El perro es nuestro

Son mías=They are mine.

(shirts-las camisas)

El carro es tuyo=The car is yours.

Es suyo= It’s his/hers/yours.


Also, the article (el, los, la, las) is used after ser to express the one that belongs to (me, you, him, etc.)

Por ejemplo:

· Estos libros son los míos.  
(These books are the ones that belong to me.)

· ¿Cuáles son los tuyos?  
(Which are the ones that belong to you?)


Instructions: On a separate piece of paper write out the complete sentence in Spanish substituting the English words for the correct Spanish adjectives and pronouns.

My hermana es más fea que yours.

Their casa es blanca; ours es roja.

My madre es mexicana; and yours?

My clases son fáciles; ¿cómo son yours?

Esta clase es más fácil que theirs.

Our clases no son tan difíciles como hers.

My diccionario es rojo; hers es azul.

Your familia y mine son grandes.

Estos libros son mine.

Este cuaderno es his.

Their ciudad es famosa, y ours también. (la ciudad = city)


Demonstrative Adjectives

Adjectives describe people and things.

Demonstrative adjectives in English are: 

this, that, these, and those

There are only four in English

There are 8 in Spanish, because of gender.

They come before the noun and they have the same gender and number as the noun they describe.


Adjectivos Demostrativos

Demonstrative adjectives (use before a noun) must agree in both gender and number with the noun that they modify.

Ese refers to something near the person addressed.

Aquel refers to something far from both the speaker and the listener.

Location is key to knowing what demonstrative adjective to use.

If the speaker has an item, or it is close to the speaker, he will use the demonstrative “this” or “these”.

If the speaker doesn’t have the item, but it isn’t very far away, he will use “that” or “those”.

To refer to something far away, we use “that over there” or “those over there” (there is no equivalent to this one in English).


Example sentences:

Este libro es bueno. This book is good.

Estos platos son grandes. These plates are book.

Quiero enviar esta carta. I want to send this letter.

Quiero estas revistas. I want these magazines.

Quiero aquel coche. I want that car. (over there)

Quiero aquellos periódicos. I want those newspapers (over there)

Quiero aquella silla. I want that chair (over there)

Quiero aquellas faldas. I want those skirts (over there).


Demonstrative Pronouns

Juan reads this book. (adjective)

Juan lee este libro.

Juan reads this. (pronoun)

Juan lee este.

That statue is Greek. (adjective)

Esa estatua es griega.

That (one) is American. (pronoun)

Esa es americana.



Translate the following sentences into Spanish. Remember that the demonstrative pronouns carry an accent, whereas the adjectives don't.

That girl is prettier than this one. (más bonita que)

This class is easier than that one. (más fácil que)

This isn't my pencil; that is.

Is this your girlfriend?

This is my favorite class.

This guy is smart; that one isn't.

That's my notebook; this one's yours.

What is this?

Whose book is this?

Whose magazines are these?

Whose dog is that over there?

Whose books are those over there?


Demonstrative Pronouns

Juan reads this book. (adjective)

Juan lee este libro.

Juan reads this. (pronoun)

Juan lee éste.

That statue is Greek. (adjective)

Esa estatua es griega.

That (one) is American. (pronoun)

Ésa es americana.

<--this modifies the noun

<--- this replaces the noun

<--this modifies the noun

<--- this replaces the noun



^She bought ese bag when she went to Paris.


Demonstrative Pronouns are used in place of the noun.

They must agree in number and gender with the noun they modify.

Demonstrative Pronouns show where someone or something is located in relation to the speaker.


This car is new. Este carro es nuevo This is new. Éste es nuevo. 

These shoes are old. Estos zapatos son viejos. These are old. Éstos son viejos. 

Those classes are fun. Esas clases son divertidas.Those are fun. Ésas son divertidas.


New vocabulary

day == día

hour == hora

today == hoy

month == mes

yesterday == ayer

tomorrow == mañana

last week == la semana pasada

last year == año pasado

the day before yesterday =


Preterite Verbs: El Pretérito

Preterite means “past tense”

Preterite verbs deal with “completed past action”

The ending tells who did the action.

-ER/-IR endings

-AR endings









más con el pretérito...


Verbs that stem-change in the present tense do no have a stem change in the preterite.

Example: cerrar-to close

I close the windows every day.

Yo cierro las ventanas todos los días.

But yesterday I didn't close the windows.

Pero ayer no cerré las ventanas.


There is a spelling change in the yo form for verbs whose infinitive ends in:

-car c -> qué

-gar g -> gué

-zar z -> cé

All of their other preterite forms are regular.

Buscar - yo bus tú busc

Pagar - yo pag él pag

Almorzar -yo almor ellos almorz


quick check:

1. I played soccer.

2. You bought a red hat yesterday.

3. Felipe looked for blue shoes.

4. Martha used a credit card to buy the cotton dress.

5. We practiced the preterite.


ir – fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron

dar – di diste dio dimos dieron

ver – vi viste vio vimos vieron

querer – quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisieron

hacer – hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicieron

venir – vine viniste vino vinimos vinieron

poder – pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudieron

poner – puse pusiste puso pusimos pusieron

saber – supe supiste supo supimos supieron

decir – dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijeron

traer – traje trajiste trajo trajimos trajeron

conducir – conduje condujiste condujo condujimos condujeron (to drive)

tener – tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvieron

estar – estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvieron

andar – anduve anduviste anduvo anduvimos anduvieron (to walk)


Writing assignment:

Individually, you are to write a paragraph about the last time you went shopping (real or imaginary). Must include vocabulary from your list. Must be in the PAST TENSE. 

Who did you go with?

What did you buy? What is cheap? expensive?

Where did you go to buy it?

When was it? * hace + tiempo = how long ago... Hace dos días.. 2 days ago..

If you bought clothing, describe it..

Must be 5-7 complete well written sentences.


So.. remember when I said that there were no irregular stem changes in the preterite tense..... well... I lied...

-ER/-IR verbs with spelling changes are those that have double vowels in their endings like: Leer, Oír, Caer:

leer- to read

leí leímos

leíste ------

leyó leyeron

í ímos

íste ----

yó yeron

accents in the yo through the nosotros form

3rd person singular and pluarl change from i -> y


Let's practice!!

creer- destruir-

caer(se)- construir-

oír- excluir-


Translate the following sentences:

1. They read a book to the children. (leer)

2. He didn't believe the news. (creer)

3. Susana an Isabela heard the song. (oír)

4. The children fell off the bus. (caerse)


Also..... I lied about -IR verbs in the preterite tense...

They DO stem-change!...sometimes...

For the 3rd person singular and plural (él/ella/Ud/ellos/ellas/Uds)

they change from E -> I and O -> U

Servir- to serve Dormir- to sleep

serví servimos

serviste -------

sirvió sirvieron


Fill in the following blanks with the correct conjugation.

1. Celia ______________ (sentirse) muy mal ayer.

2. Yo _____________ (mentir) anoche.

3. ¿___________ (dormir) usted bien anoche?

4. ¿___________ (preferir) ellos la falda roja o la falda morada?

5. Los gatitos no ____________ (morir).

6. Tanner ____________ (competir) en el partido del fútbol.