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Welcome to an Introduction to Writing Argument. Take a Stand. Would you rather have the voice of Gilbert Godffried or Elmo?. Take a Stand. Would you rather…?. Like Us On Facebook. Southeast Arkansas Literacy. Follow Us On Twitter. kathytsadler. Task Engagement.

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Welcome to an Introduction to Writing Argument


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  1. Welcome to an Introduction to Writing Argument

  2. Take a Stand Would you rather have the voice of Gilbert Godffried or Elmo?

  3. Take a Stand Would you rather…?

  4. Like Us On Facebook Southeast Arkansas Literacy Follow Us On Twitter kathytsadler

  5. Task Engagement • What was your best writing experience? • What was your worst writing experience?

  6. Today’s Objectives • Scaffold writing from taking a stance to writing an argument • Review the expectations of the Common Core State Standards • Differentiate between persuasion and argument • Recognize argumentative techniques in a variety of texts • Formulate an argument with a claim and counter-claim • Create an Argumentation Teaching Task

  7. CCSS Writing Anchor Standards Text Types and Purposes* 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

  8. Text Types • Argument 2. Informative/Explanatory 3. Narrative

  9. What is Argument?

  10. Writing Anchor Standard 1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Writing Standard 1: Grade Level Progressions Kindergarten: Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…). Grade 1: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. Grade 2: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

  11. Writing Anchor Standard 1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Writing Standard 1: Grade Level Progressions Kindergarten: Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…). Writing Only Grade 1: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. Grade 2: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

  12. Grade 2: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words(e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. • Grade 3: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. • a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. • b. Provide reasons that support the opinion. • c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. • d. Provide a concluding statement or section. • Grade 4: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. • a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. • b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. • c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). • d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

  13. Grade 4: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. • a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. • b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. • c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). • d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. • Grade 5: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. • a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. • b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. • c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). • d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. • Grade 6: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. • a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. • b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

  14. Grade 6: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. • a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. • b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. • Grade 7: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. • a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. • Grade 8: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. • a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

  15. Grade 8: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. • a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. • Grades 9-10: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. • a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

  16. Grades 9-10: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. • a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. • Grades 11-12: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. • a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

  17. Grade-level Progression • What do the standards imply? Consider order, wording, what is omitted, what is included. Welcome to Mrs. Houghton’s Kindergarten Class What assumptions do the standards make?

  18. Student-Friendly Deconstruction

  19. The Common Core: The Standards Decoded

  20. Key Terms for Writing Argument • Claim – A statement of the writer’s position on a particular, arguable topic; a thesis. • Counterclaim – A claim that opposes or disagrees with the thesis/claim. In logical argumentation, counterclaims should be presented fairly and thoroughly. A writer often raises counterclaims because he anticipates that they are already in the minds of the audience and need to be addressed. • Evidence – Facts, figures, details, quotations, or other sources of data and information that provide support for claims or an analysis and that can be evaluated by others; should appear in a form and be derived from a source widely accepted as appropriate to a particular discipline, as in details or quotations from a text in the study of literature and experimental results in the study of science. • Reason – a statement that supports a given claim, making it more than a simple assertion or opinion. Reasons are the writer’s explanation or justification for what he claims.

  21. Let’s Take a Break!!!

  22. Argument Persuasion

  23. Persuasion vs. Argument "With its roots in orality, rhetoric has a bias for viewing audiences as particular. Aristotle said, ‘The persuasive is persuasive to someone.’ In contrast to rhetoric, writing has a bias for an abstract audience or generalized conception of audience. . . . For this reason, a particular audience can be persuaded, whereas the universal audience must be convinced; particular audiences can be approached by way of values, whereas the universal audience (which transcends partisan values) must be approached with facts, truths, and presumptions.” Miller & Charney Argument Persuasion

  24. Persuasion or Argument?

  25. Persuasion or Argument?

  26. What is Argument? Appendix A • To change the reader’s point of view • To bring about some action on the reader’s part • To ask the reader to accept the writer’s explanation or evaluation of a concept, issue, or problem

  27. What’s the Difference? Persuasion Argument Makes claims based on factual evidence Makes counter-claims; The author takes opposing views into account Neutralizes or “defeats” serious opposing ideas Convinces the audience through the merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered Often compares texts or ideas to establish a position Logic-based • May make claims based on opinion • May not take opposing ideas into account • Persuades by appealing to the audience’s emotion or by relying on the character or credentials of the writer—less on the merits of his or her reasons and evidence. • Emotion-based

  28. (LDC Task 6) Do you believe that the emphasis that the Common Core State Standards places on writing argument is valid? Why or why not? After reading The Special Place of Argument in the Standards and watching the video, Writing to Inform and Make Arguments, write a short, multiple paragraph response in which you discuss the significance that the standards has placed on writing argument, and evaluate its validity. (D1) Be sure to acknowledge competing views. (D5) Identify any gaps or unanswered questions.

  29. Crafting an Argument

  30. You be the judge… Is K-Mart’s Joe Boxer Christmas commercial undeniably controversial or ingeniously creative?

  31. Crafting an Argument

  32. CCSS: Appendix C Group 1: Grade 12 (Freedom) Group 2: Grade 12 (Dress Codes) Group 3: Grade 10 Group 4: Grade 9 Group 5: Grade 7 Group 6: Grade 6 (Pet Story) Group 7: Grade 6 (Dear Mr. Sandler)

  33. Discuss what the writing and annotations reveal about characteristics of argument writing according to CCSS.

  34. Group by color and share your sample group’s findings. Discuss what the writing and annotations reveal about characteristics of argument writing according to CCSS.

  35. Discuss what the writing and annotations reveal about characteristics of argument writing according to CCSS. Group by color and share your sample group’s findings. Generate a list of characteristics across samples: what are the qualities of argument writing, as revealed by these samples, in connection to standards?

  36. Discuss what the writing and annotations reveal about characteristics of argument writing according to CCSS. Group by color and share your sample group’s findings. Generate a list of characteristics across samples: what are the qualities of argument writing, as revealed by these samples, in connection to standards? Share your group’s list.

  37. Key Terms for Argumentation Claim—Your basic belief about a particular topic, issue, event, or idea Counterclaim—A solid and reasonable argument that opposes or disagrees with your claim Rebuttal—A written or verbal response to a counterclaim. The object of the rebuttal is to take into account the ideas presented in the counterclaim and explain why they aren’t persuasive enough, valid enough, or important enough to outweigh your own claim Reasons/Evidence—Your specific facts or specific evidence used to support why your claim is true; relevant; verifiable Support/Warrants—Explanation of how the evidence supports the claim; often common sense rules, laws, scientific principles or research, and well-considered definitions. Refute—Argue against a position or prove it to be wrong Qualify—A “partly-agree” stance in which you agree (in part) with another person’s argument or position, but also disagree with part of it

  38. Choosing an Arguable Issue

  39. Choosing an Arguable Issue Arguments need… Arguments fail with… No disagreement or reason to argue Risky or trivial issues Difficulty establishing common ground Standoffs or fights that result in negative outcomes • An issue • An arguer • An audience • Common ground • A forum • Audience outcomes

  40. What about your class/grade?

  41. What about your class/grade?

  42. What about your class/grade? What characteristics of persuasion or argument are in the PSA?

  43. Building a Topic Bank Dress Codes Teen Curfews Legalization of marijuana Health Care Environmental Homework Policy Obesity Common Core Recycling Common Core Common Core