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Unit 7: Industrial Revolution (1700-1900). Case Study: Manchester , England. T he process of developing machines to produce goods. New technology impacted lives greatly, and it would never be the same. Industrialization. Small Group Activity – Inventions Timeline.

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unit 7 industrial revolution 1700 1900

Unit 7: Industrial Revolution (1700-1900)

Case Study: Manchester, England

The process of developing machines to produce goods.

New technology impacted lives greatly, and it would never be the same.

small group activity inventions timeline
Small Group Activity – Inventions Timeline
  • Examine the Inventions Timeline and create a Top 5 List & tell why it made your Top 5
  • Complete the Chart below:
industrialization changed life in britain
Industrialization Changed Life In Britain
  • New Job opportunities
  • Unhealthy working conditions
  • Air and Water Pollution
  • Ills of Child Labor
  • Rising class tensions
Factory Work

14 hour days, 6 days a week

Same work every day

More risk of injury

Unsafe environment (i.e. breathing in coal dust; city living)

Shorter lifespan


Sun up-sundown

Different jobsdaily

Healthier environment-outdoors

Work at your own pace

Less risk of injury



  • City growth and the movement of people to cities.
  • More and more factories (they often developed in clusters)
    • They needed a source of energy (water and/ or coal)
    • Cities w/ more than 100 K went from 22 to 47!
  • Biggest center of urbanization was London. (population of 1 million by 1800 - twice as big as Paris, France.
  • #1 Destination for job-seekers!
effects of industry on lifestyle
Effects of Industry on Lifestyle
  • No sanitary codes
  • No building codes
  • No adequate housing
  • Poorly educated
  • No safety nets (i.e. Welfare System)
  • Not enough police/ fire protection
  • No drains in streets
  • No garbage collection
  • Whole families living in one bedroom
  • 17 years in a city compared to 38 in rural areas!
primary source a pg 290
Primary Source A (pg. 290)

You went down one step even from the foul area into the cellar in which a family of human beings lived. It was very dark inside. The window-panes many of them were broke and stuffed with rags….the smell was so fetid (foul) as almost to knock the two men down….they began to penetrate the thick darkness of the place, and to see three or four little children rolling on the damp, nay wet brick floor, through which the stagnant, filthy moisture of the street oozed up.

  • Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton (1848)
horrors of child labor
Horrors of Child Labor
  • “Factory labour is a species of work, in some respects singularly unfitted for children. Cooped up in a heated atmosphere, debarred the necessary exercise, remaining in one position for a series of hours, one set or system of muscles alone called into activity, it cannot be wondered at--that its effects are injurious to the physical growth of a child. Where the bony system is still imperfect, the vertical position it is compelled to retain, influences its direction; the spinal column bends beneath the weight of the head, bulges out laterally, or is dragged forward by the weight of the parts composing the chest, the pelvis yields beneath the opposing pressure downwards, and the resistance given by the thigh-bones; its capacity is lessened, sometimes more and sometimes less; the legs curve, and the whole body loses height, in consequence of this general yielding and bending of its parts.”

–John Fielden a Lancashire factory owner


Often children as young as 6!

  • They were cheaper
  • 6 AM – 7 or 8 PM!
  • Maybe ½ HR for Lunch & 1 HR for Supper!
  • 6 Days a Week!
  • Supervisors sometimes beat them when they became slow & tired!
  • Machinery injured many!
  • Cotton “fluff” damaged tiny lungs!
  • Bodies worn out by early 20’s!
factory act of 1819
Factory Act of 1819
  • Passed in 1819, the government in Britain decided to take control.
  • The act restricted the working age and hours.
  • Not really enforced for years in cities like Manchester, England.
class rivalries develop
Middle Class- a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.

Upper middle class -doctors lawyers, and managers of factories, mines, and shops.

Lower middle class- included factory overseers and skilled workers.

By 1850’s land owners began to accept wealthy entrepreneurs as equals

Poor Working Class -all laborers who were working to barely survive.

Dealt with horrible working conditions

People scared of being replaced by machines!

Rarely saw any improvement in their lives!

Class Rivalries Develop
the luddites
The Luddites
  • A group of workers who were outraged that they had been replaced by machines.
  • Named after Ned Ludd, who is thought to be a mythical British laborer who destroyed the weaving machines around 1779.
  • In 1811 they attacked whole factories and destroyed machines in northern England.
something positive for industrialization
Something Positive For Industrialization?
  • Contributed to the wealth of the nation
  • Fostered technology and invention
  • Increased production of goods
  • Raised standard of living
  • Provided hope for improvement of people’s lives
    • Eventually won higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
long term effects
Long-Term Effects
  • Affordable consumer goods
    • Considered luxuries 50-60 years before this
  • Profits from industrialization produced tax revenues.
  • Taxes reinvested to provide social improvements (i.e. public education, welfare benefits, internal improvements)
exit slip effects of industrialization
Exit Slip – Effects of Industrialization

Primary Source Analysis

  • Task: Write a diary entry based on the primary source you read about the effects of industrialization on child laborers. Write from a child’s viewpoint and describe your work life and experiences. Be creative and write a minimum of two paragraphs!