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Section 8.4—Le Chatelier’s Principle. How can we push a reaction to make more products?. Le Chatelier’s Principle. Le Chatelier’s Principle – If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it will shift to re-establish equilibrium. A system will try to un-do whatever you’ve done.

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section 8 4 le chatelier s principle

Section 8.4—Le Chatelier’s Principle

How can we push a reaction to make more products?

le chatelier s principle
Le Chatelier’s Principle

Le Chatelier’s Principle– If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it will shift to re-establish equilibrium

A system will try to un-do whatever you’ve done

increasing concentrations
Increasing Concentrations

Reaction shifts to right

(get rid of extra reactants and make more products)

Q becomes too small

There’s too many reactants

Adding a reactant

Reaction shifts to left

(get rid of extra products and make more reactants)

Q becomes too large

There’s too many products

Adding a product

decreasing concentrations
Decreasing Concentrations

Reaction shifts to left

(make more reactants)

Q becomes too large

There’s too few reactants

Removing a reactant

Reaction shifts to right

(make more products)

Q becomes too small

There’s too few products

Removing a product

changes in pressure
Changes in Pressure

Reaction shifts to the side with least moles of gas to decrease pressure

Pressure increases

Decrease volume

Reactions shifts to the side with the most moles of gas to increase pressure

Pressuredecreases

Increase volume

endo exothermic
Endo & Exothermic

Endothermic Reaction– The reaction takes in energy…the products have more energy than the reactants

Energy is a reactant in the reaction

Exothermic Reaction– The reaction gives off energy…the products have less energy than the reactants

Energy is a product in the reaction

changing temperature endothermic
Changing temperature—Endothermic

Reaction shifts to right

(get rid of extra reactants and make more products)

Increase temperature of endothermic reaction

Increasing a reactant

Reaction shifts to left

(make more reactants)

Decrease temperature of endothermic reaction

Remove a reactant

changing temperature exothermic
Changing Temperature—Exothermic

Reaction shifts to left

(get rid of extra products and make more reactants)

Increase temperature of exothermic reaction

Increasing a product

Reaction shifts to right

(make more products)

Decrease temperature of exothermic reaction

Remove a product

some changes have no effect
Some changes have no effect!
  • Adding a pure solid or liquid reactant or product
    • They’re not in the equilibrium constant expression
  • Increasing pressure by adding an inert gas
    • They’re not in the equilibrium constant expression
  • Changing the volume of a reaction with an equal number of moles of gas on each side of the reaction
    • The system won’t gain anything by shifting since both sides will cause the same pressure
  • Adding a catalyst
    • A catalyst will speed up how fast equilibrium is established—but not the number of reactants and products once it’s at equilibrium
examples
Examples

Example:

Which way will the reaction shift for each of the following changes:

NH4Cl (s)  NH3 (g) + HCl (g)

Removing some NH4Cl

Adding HCl

Adding Ne (g)

Decreasing volume

examples1
Examples

Example:

Which way will the reaction shift for each of the following changes:

NH4Cl (s)  NH3 (g) + HCl (g)

Removing some NH4Cl

Adding HCl

Adding Ne (g)

Decreasing volume

No change (it’s a solid)

(Adding a product)

No change (it’s an inert gas)

(Goes to side with least gas moles)

let s practice
Let’s Practice

Which way will the reaction shift for each of the following changes:

2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 SO3 (g) an exothermic reaction

Increasing volume

Raising temperature

Adding O2

Removing SO2

let s practice1
Let’s Practice

Which way will the reaction shift for each of the following changes:

2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g)  2 SO3 (g) an exothermic reaction

(Goes to side with most gas moles)

Increasing volume

Raising temperature

Adding O2

Removing SO2

(Energy is a product)

(Adding a reactant)

(Removing a reactant)