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Chapter 33. Anatomy of blood vessels. The wall of the blood vessels. Three distinct layers Tunica intima Lines the lumen Simple squamous epithelium endothelium and endocardium Tunica media Smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers Regulates the diameter of the blood vessels.

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chapter 33

Chapter 33

Anatomy of blood vessels

the wall of the blood vessels
The wall of the blood vessels
  • Three distinct layers
    • Tunica intima
      • Lines the lumen
      • Simple squamous epithelium
      • endothelium and endocardium
    • Tunica media
      • Smooth muscle,
      • collagen and elastic fibers
      • Regulates the diameter of the blood vessels
the wall of the blood vessels1
The wall of the blood vessels
  • Tunica externa or adventitia
    • Areolar or fibrous connective tissue
    • Supports the vessel
    • Protects the vessel
arteries
Arteries
  • Blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and toward tissues. In the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary arteries conduct deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the systemic circulation, the aorta and its branches conduct oxygenated blood toward the systemic tissues
arteries1
Arteries
  • Small arteries are called arterioles. Arterioles conduct blood into a network of even smaller vessels, or capillaries.
arteries2
Arteries
  • Subject to pressure fluctuations
  • Thick walls
  • Contain more smooth muscle and elastic tissues
  • Narrower lumen than veins
arteries3
Arteries
  • Can be classified as:
  • Elastic
    • Closer to the heart
    • Large arteries
    • More elastic fibers than smooth muscle
arteries4
Arteries
  • Muscular
    • Farther from the heart
    • Smaller arteries
    • More smooth muscle than elastic fibers
veins
Veins
  • Blood vessels that conduct blood toward the heart. In the pulmonary circulation, the pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs. In the systemic circulation the vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the rest of the systemic loop. Venules are small veins.
veins1
Veins
  • Far from the heart
  • Not subjected to pressure fluctuations
  • Thin walls
  • Larger lumen than arteries
  • Presence of valves
  • Skeletal muscle pump
aorta
Aorta
  • Ascending aorta – first portion
  • Aortic arch
  • Descending aorta – within the thorax
  • Abdominal aorta – within the abdomen
aorta1
Aorta
  • Ascending aorta
    • Right and leftcoronary arteries originate from base of aortic sinus
  • Aortic arch
    • Brachiocephalic trunk – first branch
      • Right common carotid
      • Right subclavian
    • Left common carotid – second branch
    • Left subclavian – third branch
aorta2
Aorta
  • Descending aorta
    • Thoracic and abdominal aortas
head and neck
Head and neck
  • Internal Carotid
  • External carotid
  • Vertebral
  • Basilar– formed by the fusion of the vertebral arteries
head and neck2
Head and neck
  • Circle of Willis
    • Posterior cerebral
    • Posterior communicating
    • Middle cerebral
    • Anterior cerebral
    • Anterior communicating
upper limb
Upper limb
  • Axillary – continuation of the subclavian
  • Brachial – continuation of the axillary
  • Ulnar – branch of the brachial
  • Radial – branch of the brachial
thoracic and abdominal regions
thoracic and abdominal regions
  • Intercostals
  • Celiac trunk – to stomach, spleen, and liver
  • Superior mesenteric – to the small intestine and proximal large intestine
  • Suprarenal – to the adrenals
  • Renal – to the kidneys
thoracic and abdominal regions1
thoracic and abdominal regions
  • Gonadals
    • Testicular
    • Ovarian
  • Inferior mesenteric – to the distal large intestine
  • Common iliac – branches from the inferior end of the abdominal aorta
pelvis and lower limbs
Pelvis and lower limbs
  • Internal iliac – to pelvic structures
  • External iliac- to the leg
  • Femoral- to the thigh
  • Popliteal – to popliteal region
  • Anterior tibial – to the crural region
  • Posterior tibial – to the sural region
  • Fibular – to fibular region
veins head and neck
Veins – head and neck
  • Brachiocephalic – into sup.vena cava
  • Subclavian – lateral branch of brachiocephalic
  • Internal jugular – medial branch into the brachiocephalic vein
  • External jugular – external vein of the neck that returns blood to the subclavian
head and neck4
Head and neck
  • Sinuses – drain blood from the cranium
    • Superior sagittal
    • Inferior sagittal sinus
    • Transverse
upper limb and thorax
Upper limb and thorax
  • Axillary – it is a continuation of the subclavian
  • Basilic – medial and empties into the brachial
  • Brachial – continuation of axillary
  • Cephalic – lateral and empties into the axillary
  • Medial cubital – connects basilic to cephalic
upper limb and thorax1
Upper limb and thorax
  • Ulnar
  • Median
  • Radial
  • Azygos – unpaired branch into the sup. Vena cava. Drains the right side of the thorax.
  • Hemiazygos, and accessory hemiazygos -2 sets of multiple veins that empty into the azygos and drain the left side of the thorax.
  • Intercostals
abdominal veins
Abdominal veins
  • Hepatic
  • Renal
  • Gonadal – testicular or ovarian
    • Right side empties into inf. Vena cava
    • Left side joins with left renal
  • Common iliac – two branches that fuse to become inf. Vena cava
hepatic portal system
Hepatic portal system
  • Portal circulation is a set of vessels that begins and ends with capillary networks.
  • It returns blood from the digestive system to the liver
  • From the liver the blood flows to the inf. Vena cava
hepatic portal system1
Hepatic portal system
  • Hepatic portal vein – going to the liver
  • Liver
  • Hepatic vein - from the liver to inferior vena cava
lower limbs
Lower limbs
  • Internal iliac
  • External iliac
  • Femoral
  • Great saphenous – medial;into the femoral vein.
  • Popliteal
  • Small saphenous - lateral and posterior; into the popliteal.
lower limbs1
Lower limbs
  • Anterior tibial - branch into the popliteal
  • Posterior tibial – branch into the popliteal
  • Fibular
vessels to be identified on the cat
Vessels to be identified on the cat
  • Arteries
  • Aorta
  • Brachiocephalic
  • Carotid- right and left
  • Subclavian – right and left
vessels to be identified on the cat1
Vessels to be identified on the cat
  • Axillary
  • Brachial
  • Descending aorta
  • Abdominal aorta
  • Celiac trunk
vessels to be identified on the cat2
Vessels to be identified on the cat
  • Superior mesenteric
  • Renal
  • Gonadal
  • Inferior mesenteric
  • IIliac – common, external, internal
  • Femoral
vessels to be identified on the cat3
Vessels to be identified on the cat
  • Veins
  • Brachiocephalic
  • Jugular –internal, external
  • Subclavian
  • Brachial
  • Inferior vena cava
  • Renal
vessels to be identified on the cat4
Vessels to be identified on the cat
  • Illiac – common, internal, external
  • Femoral
  • Great saphenous