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Software Project Management

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  1. Software Project Management Lecture # 7

  2. Outline • Project Scheduling

  3. Relationship of People and Effort • Putnam-Norden-Rayleigh (PNR) Curve indicates the relationship between effort applied and delivery time for a software project. • Mathematical representation of the PNR curve:

  4. PNR curve was used to derive the software equation

  5. to = delivery time that will result in least effort expended • As we move left to to, i.e. as we try to accelerate delivery, curve rises nonlinearly • As we try to reduce accelerate delivery, curve rises sharply to left of td indicating, project delivery time can not be compressed much beyond 0.75td • As we try further, the project moves into impossible region and failure risk becomes high Effort Cost Ed Eo Impossible Region Tmin=0.75Td td to Development Time

  6. PNR Curve & Software Eqn. • The software equation is derived from the PNR curve • It demonstrates a highly nonlinear relationship between time to complete project and human effort applied to the project • Lines of Code (L) is related to effort (E) and development time (t) as: • L = P x E 1/3 t 4/3 • Rearranging the equation • E = L3 / P3t4

  7. Effort Distribution • A recommended distribution of effort across software process is often referred to as 40-20-40 rule • 40% allocated to analysis & design • 20% allocated to coding • 40% allocated to testing • Use the above as a guideline only as each project dictates its own distribution effort

  8. Defining Task Set • Task set is a collection of software engineering work tasks , milestones and deliverables that must be accomplished to complete a particular software project. • Task sets are different for different types of projects • Most organizations encounter following types of projects • Concept development projects • Explore some new business concept or application of new technology

  9. Project Types • New application development projects • Undertaken as a consequence of specific customer request • Application Enhancement projects • Involve modification to functions, performance or interfaces (observable by end-user) in existing software • Application maintenance projects • That correct, adapt or extend existing software in ways that may not be obvious to end user • Reengineering projects • Undertaken for rebuilding an existing system in whole or part

  10. Factors affecting task set selection • Size of project • Number of potential users • Mission criticality • Application longevity • Stability of requirements • Ease of customer/develop communication • Maturity of applicable technology • Performance constraints • Embedded, non embedded characteristics • Project staff • Reengineering factors • These factors also provide an indication of the degree of rigor with which the software process should be applied

  11. Reading Assignment • 24.3.1 • 24.3.2

  12. Defining a Task Network • Also known as activity network • It is a graphic representation of the task flow for a project • Displays interdependencies and parallelism • Project manager should be aware of those tasks that lie on the critical path

  13. 1.1 Concept Definition 1.5 Integrate & Test A task set network for ‘concept development’ Enables the team to see the essentially serial nature of the project, but take advantage of parallelism where possible. 1.4a Module A Des/Dev 1.2 Project Planning 1.6 Concept Demo 1.4b Module B Des/Dev

  14. Scheduling • Two Project Scheduling methods that can be applied to software development: • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) • Critical Path Method (CPM) • Both are driven by Info already developed: • Estimates of effort • A decomposition of product function • The selection of appropriate process model and task set • Decomposition of tasks

  15. Timeline Charts • When creating software project schedule, the planner begins with a set of tasks (work breakdown structure) • If automated tools are used, the work breakdown is input as a task network • Effort, duration and start date are then input for each task • As a result of this input, a timeline chart or Gantt chart is generated

  16. Tracking Schedule • Accomplished in a no. of ways • Conducting periodic project status meetings in which each team member reports progress & problems • Evaluating results of all reviews conducted throughout the s/w engg process • Determining whether formal project milestones have been accomplished by scheduled date • Comparing actual start date to planned date for each project task • Meeting practitioners to get their assessment of progress to date and problems encountered • Use earned value analysis to assess progress quantitatively