forces in the earth s crust earth comm understanding your environment pages 43 47
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Forces in the Earth’s Crust Earth Comm : Understanding Your Environment, pages 43-47. Earth and Space Science. I. Forces in the Earth’s Crust. Natural forces fold, tilt, and move rock layers  These actions are called deformation Can cause layers of rock to be folded, break,

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forces in the earth s crust earth comm understanding your environment pages 43 47

Forces in the Earth’s CrustEarth Comm: Understanding Your Environment, pages 43-47

Earth and Space Science

i forces in the earth s crust
I. Forces in the Earth’s Crust
  • Natural forces fold, tilt, and move rock layers

These actions are called deformation

  • Can cause layers of rock to be folded, break,

and move

1 tensional forces
1. Tensional forces

– Forces which stretch / pull parts of the rock in opposite directions

2 compressional forces
2. Compressional forces

– Forces that squeeze together parts of the rock

3 shear forces
3. Shear forces

– Forces that try to cause materials to slide past

each other

slide7
They can act alone or as a combination

* If any of these forces are greater than the material’s strength, the material will deform

(bend, break, stretch, compress, twist, etc.)

temperature plays a key role as to what type of deformation occurs
Temperature plays a key role as to what type of deformation occurs
  • Low temperature  rocks are brittle and

break easily

- deform by fracturing / faulting

- generally the rocks in the upper crust are

cooler in temperature

temperature plays a key role as to what type of deformation occurs1
Temperature plays a key role as to what type of deformation occurs
  • High temperature  rocks tend to deform by changing in shape continuously instead of breaking
  • Generally the rocks in the lower crust are warmer in temperature
speed of deformation plays a key role
Speed of deformation plays a key role

if force builds up slowly = folding is more likely

if force builds up quickly = faulting is more likely

fault
Fault
  • A crack in the lithosphere which can allow rock bodies to move past each other

can be caused by shear forces, compressional forces, and/or tensional forces or a combination

folding
Folding
  • A bend in a layer of rock, usually due to deformation

- usually caused by compressional forces

- very common in layered rocks such as sedimentary

slide15
* These processes occur over long periods of time and cannot be directly observed in nature
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