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## MATTER & MASS

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MATTER & MASS

- Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
- Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
- Mass is independent of the location of an object.
- An object on the earth has the same mass as the same object on the moon.

WEIGHT

- Weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object.
- Weight depends on the location of an object.
- An object weighing 1.0 lb on earth weighs about 0.17 lb on the moon.

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

- PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF MATTER
- Physical properties can be observed or measured without attempting to change the composition of the matter being observed.
- Examples: color, shape and mass
- CHEMICAL PROPERTIESOF MATTER
- Chemical properties can be observed or measured only by attempting to change the matter into new substances.
- Examples: flammability and the ability to react (e.g. when vinegar and baking soda are mixed)

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES

- PHYSICAL CHANGES OF MATTER
- Physical changes take place without a change in composition.
- Examples: freezing, melting, or evaporation of a substance (e.g. water)
- CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER
- Chemical changes are always accompanied by a change in composition.
- Examples: burning of paper and the fizzing of a mixture of vinegar and baking soda

PARTICULATE MODEL OF MATTER

- All matter is made up of tiny particles called molecules andatoms.
- MOLECULES
- A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure substance that is capable of a stable independent existence.
- ATOMS
- Atoms are the particles that make up molecules.

MOLECULE CLASSIFICATION

- Diatomic molecules contain two atoms.
- Triatomic molecules contain three atoms.
- Polyatomic molecules contain more than three atoms.

MOLECULE CLASSIFICATION (continued)

- HOMOATOMIC MOLECULES
- The atoms contained inhomoatomic moleculesare of the same kind.
- HETEROATOMIC MOLECULES
- The atoms contained inheteroatomic moleculesare of two or more kinds.

homoatomic

heteroatomic

MOLECULE CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE

- Classify the molecules in these diagrams using the terms diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic molecules.
- Solution: H2O2 is a polyatomic molecule, H2O is a triatomic molecule, and O2 is a diatomic molecule.
- Classify the molecules using the terms homoatomic or heteroatomic molecules.
- Solution: H2O2 and H2O are heteroatomic molecules and O2 is a homoatomic molecule.

CLASSIFICATION OFMATTER

- Matter can be classified into several categories based on chemical and physical properties.
- PURE SUBSTANCES
- Pure substances have a constant composition and a fixed set of otherphysicaland chemical properties.
- Example: pure water (always contains the same proportions of hydrogen and oxygen and freezes at a specific temperature)

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER(continued)

- MIXTURES
- Mixturescan vary in composition and properties.
- Example: mixture of table sugar and water (can have different proportions of sugar and water)
- A glass of water could contain one, two, three, etc. spoons of sugar.
- Properties such as sweetness would be different for the mixtures with different proportions.

HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES

- The properties of a sample of a heterogeneous mixture depends on the location from which the sample was taken.
- A pizza pie is a heterogeneous mixture. A piece of crust has different properties than a piece of pepperoni taken from the same pie.

HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES

- Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions. The properties of a sample of a homogeneous mixture are the same regardless of where the sample was obtained from the mixture.
- Samples taken from any part of a mixture made up of one spoon of sugar mixed with a glass of water will have the same properties, such as the same taste.

ELEMENTS

- Elementsare pure substances that are made up of homoatomic molecules or individual atoms of the same kind.
- Examples: oxygen gas made up of homoatomic molecules and copper metal made up of individual copper atoms

COMPOUNDS

- Compoundsare pure substances that are made up of heteroatomic molecules or individual atoms (ions) of two or more different kinds.
- Examples: pure water made up of heteroatomic molecules and table salt made up of sodium atoms (ions) and chlorine atoms (ions)

MATTER CLASSIFICATION EXAMPLE

- Classify H2, F2, and HF using the classification scheme from the previous slide.
- Solution:
- H2, F2, and HF are all pure substances because they have a constant composition and a fixed set of physicaland chemical properties.
- H2 and F2 are elements because they are pure substances composed of homoatomic molecules.
- HF is a compound because it is a pure substance composed of heteroatomic molecules.

MEASUREMENTS & UNITS

- Measurements consist of two parts, a number and a unit or label such as feet, pounds, or gallons.
- Measurement units are agreed upon by those making and using the measurements.
- Measurements are made using measuring devices (e.g. rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, etc.).

METRIC SYSTEM

- The metric system is a decimal system in which larger and smaller units are related by factors of 10.
- TYPES OF METRIC SYSTEM UNITS
- Basic or defined units [e.g. 1 meter (1 m)] are used to calculate derived units [e.g. 1 square meter (1 m2)].

THE USE OF PREFIXES

- Prefixes are used to relate basic and derived units.
- The common prefixes are given in the following table:

TEMPERATURE SCALES

- The three most commonly-used temperature scales are the Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin scales.
- The Celsius and Kelvin scales are used in scientific work.

TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS

- Readings on one temperature scale can be converted to the other scales by using mathematical equations.
- Converting Fahrenheit to Celsius.
- Converting Celsius to Fahrenheit.
- Converting Kelvin to Celsius.
- Converting Celsius to Kelvin.

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION PRACTICE

- Covert 22°C and 54°C to Fahrenheit and Kelvin.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

- Scientific notation provides a convenient way to express very large or very small numbers.
- Numbers written in scientific notation consist of a product of two parts in the form M x 10n, where M is a number between 1 and 10 (but not equal to 10) and n is a positive or negative whole number.
- The number M is written with the decimal in the standard position.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION (continued)

- STANDARD DECIMAL POSITION
- The standard position for a decimal is to the right of the first nonzero digit in the number M.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXPONENT n
- A positive n value indicates the number of places to the right of the standard position that the original decimal position is located.
- A negative n value indicates the number of places to the left of the standard position that the original decimal position is located.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION MULTIPLICATION

- Multiply the M values (a and b) of each number to give a product represented by M'.
- Add together the n values (y and z) of each number to give a sum represented by n'.
- Write the final product as M' x 10n'.
- Move decimal in M' to the standard position and adjust n' as necessary.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION DIVISION

- Divide the M values (a and b) of each number to give a quotient represented by M'.
- Subtract the denominator (bottom) n value (z) from the numerator (top) n value (y) to give a difference represented by n'.
- Write the final quotient as M' x 10n'.
- Move decimal in M' to the standard position and adjust n' as necessary.

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