Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System Design and Implementation Operating System Structure Virtual Machines
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A system is large and complex program that manages the computer hardware, and acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware , and provides an environment in which a user can easily interface with the computer to execute programs. Personal computer (PC) operating systems support complex games, business applications, and everything in between.
Operating system goals:
Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier
Make the computer system convenient to use
Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
Computer system can be divided into four components:
Hardware – provides the basic computing resources for the system ( CPU, memory, I/O devices)
Operating system: Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users. An operating system is similar to a government. Like a government, it performs no useful function by itself. It simply provides an environment within which other programs can do useful work.
Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users ( Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games)
Users : People, machines, other computers
Depends on the point of view
Users want convenience, easeofuse
Don’t care about resourceutilization
But shared computer such as mainframe or minicomputer must keep all users happy
Users of dedicate systems such as workstations have dedicated resources but frequently use shared resources from servers
Handheld computers are resource poor, optimized for usability and battery life
Some computers have little or no user interface, such as embedded computers in devices and automobiles
OS is a resource allocator, A computer system has many resources that may be required to solve a problem: CPU time, memory space, file-storage space, I/O devices, and so on.
Manages all resources
Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use
OS is a control program manages the execution of user programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer.
No universally accepted definition
“Everything a vendor ships when you order an operating system” is good approximation
But varies wildly
“The one program running at all times on the computer” is the kernel.Everything else is either a system program (ships with the operating system) or an application program.
One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory
Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles
bootstrap programit is stored in read-only memory (ROM) or electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), known by the general term firmware, within the computer
hardware. It Initializes all aspects of system, from CPU registers to device controllers to memory contents. The bootstrap program must know how to load the operating system and how to start executing that system.
Loads operating system kernel and starts execution
I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently
Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type
Each device controller has a local buffer
CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers
I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller
Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt
(a) At system startup (b) running a program
Policy: What will be done?Mechanism: How to do it?
(a) Nonvirtual machine (b) virtual machine