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Dr. Ken Cosh. ICS321 Management Information Systems. Business Applications Ebusiness Systems Cross Functional Ebusiness Systems CRM SCM KMS DSS Business Intelligence. Review. “Building Information Systems” Redesigning an organisation with IS

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Dr ken cosh

Dr. Ken Cosh

ICS321 Management Information Systems


  • Business Applications

    • Ebusiness Systems

    • Cross Functional Ebusiness Systems

    • CRM

    • SCM

    • KMS

    • DSS

    • Business Intelligence


Next module

  • “Building Information Systems”

    • Redesigning an organisation with IS

      • Systems as planned organisational change

    • The Systems Development Lifecycle

      • Business’ impact on Systems Development

    • Requirements Engineering

    • Implementing valuable systems

    • Managing Change

    • Outsourcing Solutions

Next Module

Building information systems the challenges

  • Major Risks and uncertainties in systems development.

    • Already mentioned some of the enterprise wide project failures

    • Systems requirements are complex and volatile

    • Time and costs are difficult to predict

    • Managing Organisational change

  • Deciding where the best impact could be had

    • Which system project to choose

    • How far to go with the system changes

Building Information SystemsThe Challenges

Organisational change through systems development

  • 4 structured organisational change levels available;

    • Automation

      • Replacing repetitive tasks by faster, more reliable systems

    • Rationalisation of procedures

      • Streamlining of standard operating procedures, removing bottlenecks for example.

    • Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

      • Radical redesign of business processes, redesigning the way the business performs procedures, combining steps for example.

    • Paradigm Shift

      • Radical reconceptualisation of the nature of the business and the nature of the organisation.

Organisational Change through Systems Development

The spectrum of organisational change
The Spectrum of Organisational Change


Paradigm Shifts









Systems engineering

An engineering discipline that investigates the cost effective development of systems.

Concerned with all practical aspects of system production from system specification to system maintenance, including design, development and implementation.

Systems Engineering

S e lifecycle
S.E. Lifecycle effective development of systems.

S e lifecycle ii
S.E. Lifecycle II effective development of systems.

Requirements engineering
Requirements Engineering effective development of systems.

“Requirements are the things that you should discover before starting to build your product. Discovering the requirements during construction, or worse, when your client starts using your product, is so expensive and so inefficient... …A requirement is something that the product must do or a quality that the product must have.”

[Robertson & Robertson 1999]

The Importance of R.E. effective development of systems.

  • The later in the development cycle an error is detected the more expensive it is to repair.

Davies 1993

Requirements Elicitation effective development of systems.

  • Sources:

    • Goals

    • Domain Knowledge

    • System Stakeholders

    • Operational Environment

    • Organisational Environment

  • Techniques:

    • Interviews

    • Scenarios

    • Prototypes

    • Facilitated Meetings

    • Observation

Elicitation difficulties

  • Communication Issues effective development of systems.

    • Management lack appreciation of IS concepts (people oriented)

    • IS lack appreciation of Business functions (technology oriented)

    • User disagreements / conflicts

  • Result - elicit requirements from many stakeholders (viewpoints) using many different techniques.

Elicitation Difficulties

Eliciting requirements

  • Interviewing difficulties effective development of systems.

    • Firstly, one individual person is unlikely to know everything about what a system should do.

    • Secondly, the individual may not be able to articulate all the requirements coherently.

    • Finally, the individual may not actually know what they do

Eliciting Requirements

Facilitated meetings

Brainstorming effective development of systems.

Project Scoping

Conflict discussion

However, arguments and people not really understanding what they do.

Facilitated Meetings


  • Ethnography effective development of systems.

    • Watching users in action to understand what they do.

  • But problem of creating meaningful reports. Business processes often too subtle & complex to describe easily.



Discussion of what should occur in different situations and under different conditions.

Conceptual modeling

But, can you cover all eventualities?




Combination of techniques
Combination of Techniques under different conditions.


Facilitated Meetings

Analysis of available systems

A Good Requirements Specification




Analysis of existing systems

Requirements analysis

Detecting & Resolving Conflicts between Requirements under different conditions.

Discovering the bounds of a system and how it interacts in it’s environment

Elaborate System Requirements to Software Requirements

Requirements Analysis

Requirements analysis1

  • Classification under different conditions.

    • Functional vs Non-functional

    • Priority

    • Scope

    • Stability / Volatility

  • Conceptual Modeling

  • Negotiation

Requirements Analysis

Feasibility analysis

  • Technical Analysis under different conditions.

    • Is it possible?

  • Economic Analysis

    • Costs vs Benefits

    • Is it worth doing?

Feasibility Analysis

Economic Evaluation under different conditions.

  • What’s it going to cost me?

    • Acquisition / Development Costs

      • Hardware, Software, Project Team salaries, Consultant fees.

    • Implementation Costs

      • Conversion, Training, Staff salaries, Design & Printing costs

    • Operating Costs

      • Ongoing Staff salaries, Training, Outside services, Forms, Maintenance, Upgrades/

Apparent / Hidden Costs under different conditions.

Computer Costs




Improper use of management time

Conversion Costs

Security / Privacy

Documentation Costs

Training & Recruitment

Operations Overload

Communication Problems

Labour Division

Benefits under different conditions.

  • Direct Savings

    • Staff reductions, Space,

  • Cost Avoidance

    • Current system inflation (maintenance etc.), Additional Staff,

  • Intangible Benefits

    • Productivity Improvement, Better Information & Decisions, Accuracy, More Timeliness, Reliability, Flexibility