Middle Ages The High Middle Ages
1/30 Focus: • The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain control of the holy lands, had profound economic, political, and social impacts on Europe and the Muslim world • Do Now: • What is the significance of the Magna Carta?
Power of the Popes • Popes were powerful spiritual leaders but also developed political power during the Middle Ages • Popes claimed authority over rulers • This often led to conflicts between Popes and kings • The investiture controversy
Power of the Popes • Pope Gregory VII tried to expand the political power of the pope • The pope can be judged by no one; • The Roman church has never erred and never will err till the end of time; • The pope alone can depose and restore bishops; • He alone can call general councils and authorize canon law • He can depose emperors; • He can absolve subjects from their allegiance; • All princes should kiss his feet.
The Crusades • A series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East over control of the holy lands • 8 Crusades between 1095-1271
The Holy Lands • The city of Jerusalem and the areas near it were known as the holy lands • Birthplace of Jesus • Site where Muslims believed Muhammad rose to heaven • Jewish Homeland
The Crusades • Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire in 1071 • Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help
The Council of Clermont • Pope Urban asks Christians to launch a crusade or holy war to liberate the holy lands from Muslims • Attracted large numbers of people willing to fight
Reasons for the Crusades • Pope Urban hoped to increase his power in Europe • Get European rulers to stop fighting each other • Reunite Eastern and Western Churches
Closure • Identify one reason that Pope Urban called for a Crusade against Muslims. • Identify two reasons that people answered the pope’s call for a crusade to free the holy lands
1/31 Focus: • For nearly 200 years, Christians and Muslims fought for control of the Holy Lands • Do Now: • What does the Holy Lands refer to? • Identify why the Holy lands were so important to Christians?
Reasons for the Crusades • Pope promised Crusaders they would receive salvation and forgiveness for sins • Promise of glory and riches • Serfs hoped to escape feudal system
The First Crusade • Crusaders fell into two groups • Peasants • Attacked Jewish communities in Germany on their way to Holy land • Were quickly defeated by the Seljuk Turks • Experienced Knights
The First Crusades • Difficulties faced by Crusaders • Lacked organization • Could not agree on a leader • Lacked knowledge of climate, terrain, and geography • No supply lines • Often ran out of food and water • Heat stroke and disease killed many crusaders
The First Crusade • Despite difficulties crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099 • Massacred Muslims, Jews, and Eastern orthodox Christians
The First Crusade Account of the capture of Jerusalem from a Crusader: “Some of our men cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the temple of Solomon, a place where religious services ware ordinarily chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, it will exceed your powers of belief. So let it suffice to say this much at least, that in the temple and portico of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins.”
The Crusader States • Crusaders established feudal kingdoms from territory captured in First Crusade • Edessa • Antioch • Tripoli • Jerusalem
The Second Crusade • Turks capture Crusader State of Edessa • Edessa was the capital of the Crusader States • Crusade to retake Crusader States lost to Turks fails
The Third Crusade • Muslim leader Saladin unites Muslim world (late 1100’s) • Captures Jerusalem
The Third Crusade • 3 European Kings launch Crusade to re-take Jerusalem • Frederick Barbarossa • Drowns while trying to cross a river • Phillip Augustus • Returns to France before reaching Jerusalem • Richard the Lionhearted
The Third Crusade • Richard the Lionhearted is unsuccessful in retaking Holy Lands from Saladin • Truce allows Christians to visit holy lands • Returns to England
The Fourth Crusade 1198 Pope Innocent III calls for Crusade to capture Jerusalem Crusaders on their way to holy lands decide to attack/loot Constantinople in 1204
The Fourth Crusade • Effects • Fail to retake the Holy Lands • Byzantine never recovers
The Children’s Crusade 30,000 French children and 20,000 German children march to Jerusalem Thousands die or are captured or sold into slavery Never reached the Holy Lands
Closure • Identify two reason why Christians responded to the popes call for a crusade to take control of the Holy lands?