Middle Ages. Between Rome and the Renaissance. Christianity. The Church became the connection between the Roman Empire and the new leadership of Europe. Beginning of Christianity.
Middle Ages Between Rome and the Renaissance
Christianity The Church became the connection between the Roman Empire and the new leadership of Europe.
Beginning of Christianity • Jesus of Nazareth (a Jew) preached compassion and love and was martyred by the Romans at the urging of Jewish leaders • Peter and other followers of Jesus start churches around the Roman Empire • Paul becomes the leader of the Christian church and writes to the churches to encourage them = New Testament
Religion of Rome • Constantine accepted Christianity, making it the official religion of Roman Empire. • The Church developed as a common string of unity between all areas of Rome.
As the Roman Empire declines… • The Church becomes the preserver of civilization • It provides… • Law enforcement and justice (courts) • Protection for the helpless • Collection of taxes to render these services
Adoption and Development • The Germanic tribes adopt Christianity as they take over the areas formally controlled by Rome • The Church develops a hierarchy with the leader in Rome • Large churches in Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria • Monks and Nuns continue to spread Christianity in the outposts
Local Monks • Most important job was to copy the Bible • Called Manuscripts
Germanic Tribes grow powerful… The Franks gain power over Gaul and Northern Italy
Franks ally with the Popes • Clovis, leader of the Franks, builds the Frankish Kingdom • In the name of the Church and Pope
Charles Martel • In 719 he was the most powerful man in the Frankish kingdom • Stopped the Muslim advance from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732
Carolingian Family • Pepin the Short takes over for his father, Charles Martel • Agrees to protect the Papacy • He is anointed “king by the grace of God”
Charlemagne • Inherits the kingdom from his father, Pepin • Led battles against his neighbors each summer • Spread Christianity • Reunited Western Europe
Treaty of Verdun • Charlemagne’s sons fought over the empire • The Church divided the empire into three parts in the Treaty of Verdun • They were weak rulers and the kingdoms were actually ran by noblemen, counts, and dukes
Invasions… • Vikings from the North • Go as far south as Corsica • Magyars from the East • Push Franks back • Muslims from the South • Sticks to the Mediterranean Sea
Enter Feudalism… • System of Government • Based on classes • Two major classes - nobility and peasantry • “you are noble or you are not.” • No middle class • Feudal Hierarchy
Feudal Hierarchy • King • Owns the Land, Supreme Leader • Lords • Knights, Lord of Fief, Defend the Country • Vassals • Knights, Lord of Manors, Defend the Fief • Peasants and Serfs • Work the Manor
Feudal Hierarchy • King • Owns the Land, Supreme Leader • Lords • Knights, Lord of Fief, Defend the Country • Vassals • Knights, Lord of Manors, Defend the Fief • Peasants and Serfs • Work the Manor Nobles
Manorialism • Economic System • Self-Sufficiency Kingdom Fief Manors
The Church • The unifying agent for all the manors • All manors had their religion in common • The Pope served as the spiritual guide for all Christians
The Crusades • The Pope decided that the Muslim influence in the Holy Land must be stopped • He guaranteed that any knight who fought against the Muslims would… • Be forgiven any sin committed during the crusade • Be free from any debt • Have their choice of fiefs upon their return
Crusades to the Holy Land • Knights and their subjects march to the Holy Land • Along the way they burn rival villages, rape and pillage Jewish settlements and kill all Muslims that they encounter. • The first Crusade was successful, but three subsequent crusades failed.
Causes Muslims controlled the Holy Land Byzantine Emperor called for help Pope wanted to reclaim the Holy Land Pope asks zealous knights to regain the Holy Land Italian cities desire commercial power Causes and Effects of the Crusades
Causes Muslims controlled the Holy Land Byzantine Emperor called for help Pope wanted to reclaim the Holy Land Pope asks zealous knights to regain the Holy Land Italian cities desire commercial power Effects Byzantine Empire is weakened Pope’s power declines Power of feudal nobles declines Kings become stronger Religious intolerance grows Italian cities expand trade and grow rich Muslims distrust Christians Technology improves Causes and Effects of the Crusades
End of Feudalism • The Bubonic Plague ravages Europe • 1/3 of Europe’s population dies • With the population loss, manors are no longer able to maintain self-sufficiency • Skilled artisans (bakers, shoe makers, etc.) begin to form Guilds – unions of like artisans
Guilds • Artisans center themselves between all of the manors = cities/townships. • Are able to charge more for their services because there are less people available to do the job • Become the Middle Class • The Bourgeoisie
The Bourgeoisie • The new middle class required law and order. • As their power grew they could convince the kings that they were responsible for maintaining order in the kingdom. Kings build up governments
What is a nation? • Central government that can defend itself and keep order in its own borders. • Common language, religion, traditions and ways of life. • A feeling of nationalism and patriotism created loyalty and pride in countries.
What is a nation? • Central government that can defend itself and keep order in its own borders. • Common language, religion, traditions and ways of life. • A feeling of nationalism and patriotism created loyalty and pride in countries. CULTURE
England becomes a Nation… 1066 Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror, a Norman, takes over the Saxons in England Norman lords given fiefs in England – they swear their allegiance to William (foundation of central government) 1154-1189 Henry II strengthens royal courts – circuit courts, jury system, and common law 1215 Magna Carta guarantees basic political rights to King John’s lords; no taxation w/o representation, jury trial, protection of law 1295 Development of Parliament – originally called together to okay taxes Magna Carta and Parliament become a “check” on royal power
France becomes a Nation… 987 Hugh Capet begins the Capetian Dynasty 1180-1223 Philip II expanded the land & power of the Capatian kings Philip II establishes stronger central government through collection of taxes and courts 1303 Philip holds Pope Boniface VIII prisoner – challenging the power of the papacy 1226-1270 Louis IX expands the court system 1285-1314 Philip IV develops the Estates General 1337-1453 Hundred Years War: France v. England for the French throne 1429 Joan of Arc helped the French win the Hundred Years War