THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION & ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ASSOCIATIONS (IUAPPA) International Seminar URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT 21st – 23rd October 2002 - Sao Paulo, Brazil THE EVOLUTION OF THE AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLICIES IN EUROPE Prof. Giuseppe Fumarola University of L’Aquila, Vice President CSIA/ATI, Italy President EFCA “The most important message that IUAPPA has is for developing countries through the world, not to make the same mistakes which most industrial countries made over 100 years ago and which has taken them over 100 years to put right” Rear Admiral P.G. Sharp, Director NSCA (UK),Fifth Int. Clean Air Congress, Buenos Aires, 1980
INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT AIR POLLUTANT SOURCES STATIONARY COMBUSTION PLANTS TRANSPORTATION
Historical examples of complained environmental problems • ROMA • at the August Emperor time, two thousand years ago, transportation by carts animal-drawn at any time of the day created noise, nauseous odour and sanitary problems • todaya similar problem is smartly called sustainable mobility • LONDON • at the time of King Edward I, in 1306, combustion in stationary sources (domestic furnaces) which burned coal • today the old "fashionable" smog of London has been substituted by the sly PM10. • VENICE • the furnaces for glass manufacture in XII century had to move away from the city, on the near Murano island. • today the artistic Murano glass production plants have still to comply with new emission limits. A recent decree of the Italian Ministry of the Environment establish a deadline at the end of December 2002 At the beginning of the third Millennium:nothing new under the sun
Raw Materials E M I S S I O N S / W A S T E S Energy AIR WATER INDUSTRIAL PROCESS SOIL Products
Raw Materials A S B Y A S T T E E M M E S N T AIR Energy E M W I A S S S T I E O S N S INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WATER SOIL Products
Best Practicable Means (BPM) Air Quality Management (AQM) u Q (Kg/h) Ce (mg/m3) Co -Ce = ------------ Co PROCESS Co Ce END-OF-PIPE TECHNOLOGIES Cmax= f(A.Q.S.) Distance downwind to the chemney
RATIONAL USE AND RECYCLE OF ENERGY, RAW MATERIALS, BY-PRODUCTS AND WASTES Raw Materials A B A T E M E N T S Y S T E M S E M I S S I O N S - W A S T E S AIR Energy WATER INDUSTRIAL PROCESS Recycle Recycle SOIL By-products- Wastes Emissions - Wastes Products
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) Raw Materials A B A T E M E N T S Y S T E M S E M I S S I O N S - W A S T E S AIR Energy WATER INDUSTRIAL PROCESS Recycle Recycle SOIL By-products- Wastes Emissions- Wastes Products
EUROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Polluter pays principle Command and Control Environmental taxation Voluntary instruments
EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Command and Control Raw Materials A B A T E M E N T S Y S T E M S E M I S S I O N S - W A S T E S AIR Energy WATER INDUSTRIAL PROCESS Recycle Recycle SOIL By-products Wastes Emissions Wastes Products
EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Environmental Taxation Raw Materials A B A T E M E N T S Y S T E M S E M I S S I O N S - W A S T E S AIR Energy WATER INDUSTRIAL PROCESS Recycle Recycle SOIL By-products Wastes Emissions Wastes Products
EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ECOLABEL Ecolabel is an ecological quality mark for products of wide use adopted in Europe in 1992. It requires an environmental performance assessment (impact on air, water and soil, waste production, energy consumption, safety, etc.), along with defined criteria, during the entire life cycle (from cradle to grave). The label may be used in the market place relying on the consumers perception for eco-labelled products.
EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) EMAS is a voluntary instrument, adopted in Europe in 1993, conceived to encourage companies, not only industrial, and even public administrations, to adopt proactive initiatives for continuous improvements of the environmental performance of their processes, products and services. It aims at having more efficient use of raw materials and energy, minimizing wastes, minimising risk of impact on the environment, planning the investment in a more environmental friendly manner. The site subjected to EMAS is filed on an European Register and receives a mark which may be used in the market place to demonstrate to the public at large the positive commitment in the protection of the environment.
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)Directive 96/61/CE PURPOSE To provide for a permitting system for certain categories of industrial installations to achieve integrated prevention and control of pollution and ensure a high level of protection for the environment as a whole CONDITION To take all appropriate preventive measures against pollution through the application of the Best Available Technology
BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY: the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole BEST: shall meanmost effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole AVAILABLE:shall mean those techniques developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into considerations costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member States in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator TECHNOLOGY:shall include both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned.
EUROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) “Seveso” Directives Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)
AIR POLLUTION FROM VEHICLES EVAPORATION COMPOSITION FUEL ENGINE WASTE ENERGY EXHAUST TECNICAL MODIFICATION NEW PERFORMANCE EMISSION STANDARDS THREE-WAY CATALITIC CONVERTER
STATIONARY COMBUSTION PLANTS General measures to fight air pollution For domestic furnaces • USE OF SOLID FUELS FORBIDDEN • LIQUID FUELS WITH LOW SULPHUR CONTENT • GAS PIPE NETWORK • CONTROL OF COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY For power plants • STRINGENT EMISSION STANDARDS • EMISSION TAXATION
MAIN ACTIONS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY • PURSUE A PROACTIVE APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AS A WHOLE • PURSUE THE MARKET-BASED MECHANISMS ACCORDING TO POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE • INVOLVE PUBLIC AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS TO STIMULATE CHANGES IN CONSUMPTION PATTERNS • Integrated Product Policy • Green Public Procurement
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN AIR POLLUTION POLICY FOR VEHICLES • REDUCE SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION OF FUEL • IMPROVE FUEL COMPOSITION WITH NEW ADDITIVES • PROMOTE ECO-LABELS FOR CARS WITH LOW CONSUMPTION AND/OR ALTERNATIVE FUELS • ENFORCE TAXATION INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION • EQUIP NEW CARS WITH ON-BOARD-DIAGNOSIS
HEALTH GLOBAL MANAGEMENT SAFETY ENVIRONMENT
Two main lines for GLOBAL MANAGEMENT • TECHNOLOGIES: • INHERENTLY EFFICIENT (minimal use of raw materials and energy) • INHERENTLY CLEAN (minimal production of flue gases and wastes) • INHERENTLY SAFE (minimal risk at workplace and for the living environment) • SOCIAL ASPECTS: • EDUCATION • PUBLIC PERCEPTION • LEGISLATION • ECONOMICAL RESOURCES