National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General 2013-10-14 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General 2013-10-14
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National Board of Trade Lena Johansson Director-General 2013-10-14

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  1. National Board of TradeLena JohanssonDirector-General2013-10-14

  2. National Board of Trade • Agency for foreign trade and trade policy • Promote free trade and transparent rules • Our main task is to improve opportunities for international trade

  3. Objectives • An effective Internal Market • An open trade policy in the EU • A strong multilateral international trading system

  4. The Swedish Government: ….. create growth and employment in Sweden by promoting free trade and dismantling of trade barriers

  5. Free trade • Trade and welfare • Sweden is very dependant on international trade

  6. Developing countries • Analyses of developing countries perspective • Competence and capacity building programmes in developing countries • Open Trade Gate Sweden

  7. Ljuset är proportionell mot den ekonomiska aktiviteten

  8. International trade: theories and practices • Why do peopletrade? • Situation and developments in worldtrade • Swedish tradepatterns and developments • Tradepolicies • Trade and Climate Change • Development perspective

  9. Swedish trade dependance Exports/GDP > 50 % Imports/GDP = almost 50 %

  10. Källa: WTO

  11. Exports of goods and services,percent of GDP (1960-2007)

  12. Exports/GDP 1960 1996 2006 Global 10 % 20 % 30 % Sweden 14 % 35 % > 50 %

  13. Källa: UNCTAD

  14. Foreign investments/GDP 1995 2005 Global 10 % 24 % Sweden 30 % > 50 %

  15. Imports of goods and services increase faster then GDP in almost every country FDI´s grow even faster

  16. “Nations do not trade, nor do sectors.It is firms that trade” “… This simple truth makes it clear that understanding the firm-level facts is essential to good policy-making in Europe. The view that it is important to focus on the firm rather than the sector is the single most important message of recent developments in international economics”. Citat från EU-sponsrade forskningsprojektet:European Firms in aGlobal Economy (EFIGE)

  17. International trade is still regional • Total trade between North America, Asia and Europé =23 % of world trade • Trade within the three regions= 53 % of world trade-Europe 31 % (single market 25 %)- Asia 14 %- North America 8 %

  18. 787mdr $ (6 %) 477mdr $ (4 %) 103 mdr $ (1 %) 4243mdr $ (31%) 1108 mdr $ (8%) 951 mdr $ (7 %) 1889mdr $ (14%) 93,4 mdr $ (1%) 282 mdr $ (2%) 40,5 mdr $ (0,3 %) 122 mdr $ (1 %) 315 mdr $ (2 %) 1148 mdr $ (8%) Intra regional handel Inter-regional handel Källa: WTO International Trade Statistics 2008

  19. EU-27:s intra- och extra regional varuhandel som andel av total handel 1962-2008 Källa: UN comtrade database (Wits)

  20. Sveriges intra- och extra-handel med varor som procentandel av total handel 1962-2008 Källa: UN comtrade database (WITS)

  21. Trends in worldtrade – long term • Global market place • Global Value Chains • Goods and Services • Servicification • e-commerce • Movement of persons • Data flows • Digitalization Other tendencies - short term? • Crises effects, politics • New protectionism • Public procurement, internationally, EU, Sweden, locally • Local production Climate concerns Emerging markets

  22. Export by regions (1963 och 2007) 50

  23. Global Value Chains and Trade • The traditionalpicture: An industry in one country producesgoods for exports to and final consumption in another country

  24. Global Value Chains and Trade • The new reality: The production is fragmentedInputs and componentsareproduced in manycountriesand the product is assembled in manycountries

  25. A typical Swedish motor vehicle is only 50 % Swedish… Made in Sweden?

  26. Made In The World

  27. Källa: Egna beräkningar baserade på SCB:s Input-Outputtabeller

  28. Swedish exports are not only made in Sweden OECD-average: 31 %

  29. Sectors Tjänstesektorer

  30. Exportvärdet jämfört med förädlingsvärdet från exporten

  31. En Boeing Dreamliner :Made in America? 43 subcontractors Spread on 135 production facilities in the world Among other things, wings made in Japan, the engines of in the U.S. and Great Britain, the doors in France and Sweden 70 % of the components are manufacturesd outside the U.S. ”Källa: Newhouse, John and A. A, Knopf (2007), Boeing vs Airbus, The inside story of the greatest international competetion in business, New York, USA

  32. Over 50 % of world trade is trade in inputs

  33. “Everybody is in Services” – The Impact of Servicification in Manufacturing on Trade and Trade Policy

  34. Servicification = more and more services as inputs and outputs in manufacturing Increased dependence in the manufacturing industry on • Purchased service inputs • In-house service production • Sales of services integrated into products • Sales of services alongside products • Service import and export …supports competitiveness, productivity and trade

  35. Almost 50 % of the employees in Swedish manufactoring have services jobs

  36. Services and Global Value Chains

  37. 1. Services as enablers Financial services Logistics Services Quality Control Services Marketing Services Source: USITC 2011

  38. Minecraft by Mojang AB • Game idea: Mining different blocks to create and build structures of choice • First released: May 2009 • Official release: November 2011 • Original developer: Markus ‘Notch’ Persson • Owner: Notch Development AB • Current Developer: Mojang AB (under license) • Sold copies: 18 million (Dec 2012) – 40,000 copies/day

  39. Lessons from video game sector • R&D heavy, cutting edge of ICT-sector • ”Live development” • Digital distribution • Digital tasks outsourced • Digital ecosystems

  40. Countries involved in the GVC • USA • Germany • England • Scotland • Holland • Canada • Japan • Denmark • Finland • Sweden Plus: UN Habitat, and othercountries (”Community”, marketing and ”3rd Party Servers) Without order of importance

  41. Services provide over 50 % of the valuefrom exports from OECD countries

  42. Svensk export mätt i förädlings-värde per sektor (2008)

  43. Källa: SCB

  44. Var hamnar svensk export? - 2008 Källa: OECD/Kommerskollegiums egna beräkningar

  45. Källa: SCB

  46. E-commerce • New options • New barriers • Cloud computing

  47. “While the nature of global trade has changed, trade regulation in the EU and other OECD economies has remained largely the same.”