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  1. PROACTIVE SECURITY AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS – IMPROVING YOUR EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPACITY IN CASE OF VIOLENT PROTEST AND POLITICAL RIOTS Date : 9/11/2011

  2. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Terminology Causes of student protests Types of students protests What enables confrontational student protests? Preventing student protests Managing student protests Additional reading material

  3. TERMINOLOGY • Student activism, student unrest, student riots and student demonstrations • For the purpose of this presentation the term student protest will be used

  4. CAUSES OF STUDENT PROTEST Students standing up for their rights Police response and behaviour to less serious incidents trigger student protest action “15 minutes of fame” Student organisations aligned with national bodies receive instructions from the national bodies Internal educational matters National and global concerns Monumental growth in student numbers Financial and academic exclusions Materialism and access to resources

  5. CAUSES OF STUDENT PROTEST (con’d) Materialism and Access to resources (con’d) UJ student leadership and politics in 2010 elections on party political basis ±19% participation (2011 = 24%) Party political student organisations deployed members into leadership positions SRC’s budget for 2010 ± R1,5m SRC controls this budget Interference by national bodies Appointment of student activists as staff Tension among the student organisations perceived preference given to certain student organisations Access to University top management. SRC President have easy access and will not represent opponents Protest action arranged before elections to attract votes

  6. TYPES OF STUDENT PROTESTS Co-operative (moderate) protests Confrontational

  7. CO-OPERATIVE (MODERATE) PROTESTS Not a serious threat

  8. CONFRONTATIONAL Confrontational Geared towards – and frequently results in breaking the institutions rules (e.g. student code of conduct) or even national legislation May include mass meetings, rallies, protests, marches, street demonstrations and strikes, class and examination boycotts and disruptions. Can be unpredictable and become highly confrontational, aggressive and even violent Can be on or off campus Can take the form of rampaging, rioting and looting on campus and in residences, laying siege on senate or council meetings and in some cases, even the torching of administrative buildings Intimidation Can be a serious threat to life and property and the kidnapping and even the torture of senior university authorities has been reported. Students may oscillate between protest action and negotiations with management to achieve their objectives

  9. WHAT ENABLES CONFRONTATIONAL STUDENT PROTESTS? Access to an area and temporal availability (university campuses are therefore ideal for protests) Students know how to organise Access to resources, funds, printing, telephone, email and websites

  10. PREVENTING STUDENT PROTESTS Two-way communication channels (student-management) Consider student’s demands Motivate why demands cannot be met Negotiations (Record and distribute minutes asap) Code of conduct / student regulations Address issues of civility Clearly address student protest Communicated to all students (and parents) right from orientation phase Student Protest Policy Consistent disciplinary action Corruption free “clean”, transparent and fair management of the university University top-management should not get directly involved with administering discipline, seen as both prosecutor and judge and therefore an adversary to the students

  11. STUDENT PROTEST PREPAREDNESS Emergency Operation Plan (EOP) Within existing organizational structures the EOP works to ensure things are done systematically. Existing legislation and other memoranda of agreement forms the backbone of what the EOP aims to do Statement of Purpose – This is what the Plan seeks to achieve for stakeholders Situation and assumptions – Statement of the emergency events, actual and potential, and describe the warning methods and any situations that may be peculiar / unusual to the community Organization and assignment of responsibilities Concept of operations - This section describes the roles and relationships of government agencies, the private sector and how they interact with each other. Administration and logistics - the management of resources, general support requirement, and availability of services and support for all phases of emergency management and the policies set up to make these activities occur

  12. STUDENT PROTEST PREPAREDNESS (con’d) Plan development and maintenance – This involve activities to keep the plan current and reflect changes that result from actual experiences in emergency management, changing emergency situations and assumptions, and modification in the community’s profile. Authorities and references – These authorities and references apply to those statures, executive orders, regulations, and formal agreements that pertain to any type of emergency. Definition of terms – This provides for a common understanding of the terms that will be used in communication, directing and control in disasters An EOP is incomplete if it does not contain functional annexes that provide specific information and direction on operations and the role and responsibilities to be performed by responders.

  13. STUDENT PROTEST PREPAREDNESS (con’d) Examples of functional annexes Standard Operating Procedures / Policies - Student Protest Policy - Medical Emergency Response - Student Regulations / Code of Conduct / Disciplinary Code - Emergency Procedures - Emergency Communication Plan Responders must have thorough knowledge of : - Criminal Procedure Act - Gathering Act - SAPS standard operating procedures

  14. STUDENT PROTEST PREPAREDNESS (con’d) Information gathering Stakeholders, Top Management, Student Affairs etc., must keep the Director Protection Services informed. Gather information from students and other sources Operational plan Increase specialised Crowd Control Officers Arrange video and photographer to record all protest action Inform local SAPS Inform Public Order Police Unit Inform staff about the student protests Communication lines

  15. Managing student protests Deploy security staff according to Operational Plan Deploy Crowd Control officers under command of experienced in-house security officer to prevent damage, injuries and disruption of university activities Coordinate SAPS deployment Coordinate Student Affairs’ responsibilities regarding instructions to – and communication and negotiations with students Record all activities (Video, photo’s and audio) Keep staff and media relations officers informed through continuous Situation Reports (e-mail) Strict assess control to campus to prevent outsiders from joining or leading the protest action Identify leaders among protesting students (video and photographic proof) Submit report with proof requesting immediate action against leaders of protest If disciplinary action is successful and leaders are suspended, remove them from campus Call in SAPS (Public Order Police Unit) to act when: - Crime is committed - Court interdict is obtained Complete full report

  16. ADDITIONAL READING MATERIAL Student protest in Sub – Saharan Africa Johan A Nkinyangi http://www.jstor.org/pss/3447250 Student Governance in Africa: Thematic Summary of Key Literature Thierry M. Luesher Unrest on the campus Helen Suzman foundation http://www.hsf.org.za/resource-centre/focus/issues-11-20/issue-11-third-quarter-1998/unrest-on-the-campus Why we need militant and radical student leaders S. Phakathi http://mg.co.za/article/2010-07-30-why-we-need-militant-and-radical-student-leaders

  17. Thank You