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Chapter 36 The Integumentary , Skeletal, & Muscular System. John Hizny Lexi Coolbaugh Sarah Schultz James Avery Adam Werner. Section 36-1. The Integumentary System. Layers of Skin.

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chapter 36 the integumentary skeletal muscular system

Chapter 36The Integumentary, Skeletal, & Muscular System

John HiznyLexiCoolbaughSarah SchultzJames AveryAdam Werner

section 36 1
Section 36-1

The Integumentary System

layers of skin
Layers of Skin
  • SkinLargest organ in the body Part of integumentary systemIntegumentary includes skin, hair, nails, and number of important glands in skin.
  • Skin has three layers
    • Outer layer - Epidermis
    • Inner Layer -Dermis
    • Lowest Layer - Hypodermis
dermis
Dermis
  • Supports the Epidermis
  • Contains important cells for:Nerve endingsBlood VesselsSmooth Muscle
  • The body’s Sweat/Oil Glands are located here also
epidermis
Epidermis
  • Produces cells that are pushed toward the surface. Produces keratin as they move upward.
  • Keratin – Tough, flexible protein
    • Major protein found in fingernails
    • Forms a tough waterproof layer on top of skin
hair nails
Hair & Nails
  • Hair is produced from columns of cells that are filled with keratin and then…. DIE.
  • Clusters of cells make up Hair Follicles.
  • Toenails/fingernails are formed by keratin-forming cells for a flattened plate.
section 36 2
Section 36-2

The Skeletal System

bones
Bones
  • All vertebrates have an internal skeletal system
    • Bones store supplies of calcium and phosphorous
  • Internal Skeletal System
    • Provides support for the upper body
    • Attachment sites for muscles
    • Protects internal organs
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Periosteum- tough layer surrounding bones
  • Inside the periosteum is a dense layer of compact bone.
  • Spongy bone is found inside the compact bone.
  • Osteocytes- Cells found in C & S bone.
    • Help build and maintain bones
bone growth
Bone Growth
  • Bones are produced by Cartilage.
  • Cartilage is produced at growth plates & gradually is replaced by bone as the skeleton enlarges.
joints
Joints
  • A place where two bones meet.
  • 3 kinds of joints:
    • Fixed
      • Little or no movement between bones
        • Mostly located in the skull
    • Slightly Moveable
      • Small amount of movement
        • Mostly located in a Spinal Column or Ribs
    • Freely Moveable
      • Wide Range of movement
        • Ex: Shoulders and hips
joints continued
Joints Continued
  • Joints are enclosed by a Joint Capsule.
  • Inside the capsule is Synovial Fluid
    • Natural lubricant that reduces friction & allows the cartilage coated bones slip past each other easily
section 36 3
Section 36-3

The Muscular System

muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue
  • There are 3 types of muscle tissue:
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  • Each of these three types muscle, have a different cellular structure.
skeletal muscle tissue
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
  • Generally attached to the bones of the skeleton and is usually under voluntary control.
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is behind every conscious movement you make
    • Ex: Lifting a weight
      • This is because most skeletal muscle tissue is controlled directly by the nervous system.
cardiac muscle tissue
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  • Cardiac muscle tissue is found in just one place : The Heart
  • Cardiac muscle tissue is striated, but the smaller Cardiac muscle cell have just one nucleus, and they are not under the direct control of the Central Nervous System
smooth muscle tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
  • Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of many internal organs, except the heart.
  • The cells of the smooth muscle tissue are spindle shaped, have a single nucleus, and are not striated.
  • Not always under the conscious control of the nervous system.
  • Responsible for actions not under voluntary control.
muscle structure
Muscle Structure
  • Myosin- Thick filaments that are made of protein.
  • Actin- Thin filaments that are made up of another protein.
sliding filament theory
Sliding Filament Theory
  • When hundreds of thousands of actin-myosin cross-bridges go through their cycle in a fraction of a second, the muscle cell contracts with siderable force.
muscle contraction
Muscle Contraction
  • To make well-coordinated movement, muscle contractions must be carefully controlled.
  • A single motor neuron may form synapse to one or several muscle cells. An impulse in the motor neuron causes the release of a neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    • This causes a new action potential. In turn causes the release of calcium ions into the cytoplasm of muscle cells.
      • When calcium flows into the cytoplasm, cross-bridges form, and the muscle contracts.
muscles and movements
Muscles and Movements
  • Muscles produce force by contracting.
  • Attached to bones by tendons, a muscle can pull two bones together, using the joint between them as a lever.
  • An individual muscle can pull by contracting, but cannot push.
    • If that’s true, then how can you push a door open or do a pushup?
      • The answer is that skeletal muscles are arranged in pairs. These pairs oppose each other and produce forceful movements in either direction.
section 36 4
Section 36-4

The Biology of Exercise

specialized skeletal muscle fibers
Specialized Skeletal Muscle Fibers
  • Skeletal muscles contain two main types of muscle fibers
    • Red
    • White
      • Whose properties make them specialists at different kids of exercise.
red muscle fibers
Red Muscle Fibers
  • Contain large amounts of reddish oxygen-storing protein myoglobin.
  • Red fibers have rich blood supplies and plenty of mitochondria to produce ATP.
white muscle fibers
White Muscle Fibers
  • Called fast- twitch muscle fibers and can generate powerful contractions.
  • The contain few mitochondria , these fibers contain greater densities of contractile proteins than red fibers do.
    • The powerful fibers fatigue easily, however, which means that they can produce maximum contractions for only a few seconds at a time.
exercise muscle cells
Exercise Muscle Cells
  • Aerobic exercises, such as running, swimming, and bicycling cause your body system to become more efficient.
    • Resistance exercise, such as weight lifting, increase muscle size.

LETS GET PHYSICAL!