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Early Latin America. 1492 – 1788. “ 1491”. Spanish & Portuguese Cruelty. People. Ferdinand of Aragon Isabella of Castile Bartolome` de las Casas Hernan Cortez Mocteczuma II Francisco Pizarro Francisco Vazquez de Coronado Pedro de Valdivia. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

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early latin america

Early Latin America

1492 – 1788

people
People
  • Ferdinand of Aragon
  • Isabella of Castile
  • Bartolome` de las Casas
  • Hernan Cortez
  • Mocteczuma II
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
  • Pedro de Valdivia
  • Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
  • Pedro Alvarez Cabral
  • Charles III
  • Jose de Galvez
  • Marquis of Pombal
  • TupacAmaru
groups concepts
Groups & Concepts
  • Corregidores
  • Casa de la Contratacion
  • Consulado
  • Council of the Indies
  • Letrados
  • Viceroyalties
  • Paulistas
  • Hidalgos
  • Grandees
  • Encomienda
  • Mita
  • Potosi
  • Huancavelica
  • Galleons
  • Recopilacion
  • Audiencia
  • Haciendas
places concepts
Places & Concepts
  • Hispanola
  • Mexico City
  • New Spain
  • Captaincies
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
slide9
Viceroy

Pennisulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulatos

Indians

Slaves

reconquesta
Reconquesta
  • 1492
    • Muslims ruled from 700s
  • Retake Iberia from the Muslims
  • Inquisition
    • Expel Jews
  • Atlantic reconnaissance
iberian traditions
Iberian Traditions
  • Patriarchal society
  • Nobles [landholders]
  • Professional bureaucracy
    • Based on legal system
  • No separation of church & state
  • Slavery
chronology of conquest
Chronologyof Conquest

[3 Time Periods]

  • 1st Period:
    • 1492 – 1570
      • Est. administration & economy
  • 2nd Period:
    • 1570 – 1700
      • Colonial institutions & society
      • 1 M people under European control
  • 3rd Period:
  • 18th Century
    • Reform & reorganization
    • Set stage for dissatisfaction & revolution
caribbean experience
CaribbeanExperience
  • MODEL FOR COLONIZATION
  • Columbus
    • Formed encomiendas
    • Enslave “Indians”
      • Diseases destroy indigenous populations
        • Bartolome de las Casas tried to end abuse
  • Urban centers on European grid model
    • Build universities & cathedrals
  • Magistrates control government
    • Church joins process
      • Women & African slaves
paths of conquest
Paths of Conquest
  • IMPLEMENTED BY INDIVIDUAL INITIATIVES
  • Cortez in Mexico [1519] Aztec [Mexica]
      • Amerindian allies & devastating disease
    • Capture Tenochititlan & Moctezuma II
      • New Spain
  • Pizarro [1535] S. America [Inca]
    • Atahualpa
      • Weakened by civil war
    • Built capital at Lima
paths of conquest15
Paths of Conquest
  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
      • 1540
    • U.S. Southwest
  • Pedro de Valdivia
      • 1541
    • Central Chile [Santiago]
  • By 1570
    • 192 Spanish urban settlements in New Spain
the conquerors
The Conquerors
  • Regulated by agreement b/w exploration leaders & sovereign
    • Authority for promises of sharing spoils
  • Men of conquest [are] not soldiers
    • New nobility over Amerindian peasantry
    • Epidemic diseases end any resistance
    • Conquest ends by 1570
conquest morality
Conquest & Morality
  • Conquest, exploitation, & conversion justifiable?
  • Justification
    • Natives were not human;
      • thus subordinate
  • Defense
    • De las Casa defended natives
      • they are human
  • Outcome
    • De las Casas wins but much too late
destruction transformation
Destruction & Transformation
  • Indigenous people suffered from conquest
    • Demographic catastrophe
      • Central Mexico
    • 25 M declined to less than 2 M
  • Spanish response
    • Concentrate survivors into towns and confiscate their land
    • Completely transformed their society
exploitation
Exploitation
  • Spanish keep native institutions
    • Hold their nobles responsible
      • Labor debt & tax collecting
  • Enslavement [except in warfare] was forbidden by 16th C.
    • Encomiendas created by king
      • Land grants to conquerors
        • Used natives for labor & taxes
encomienda
Encomienda
  • Land grants by crown
    • Modified because
    • Feared rise of new nobility
      • Disappeared by 1620s
  • State contracted native labor
    • Used in mines & state projects
  • Indians adapted Spanish culture to conform to their own
the great exchange
The Great Exchange
  • Columbian Exchange
    • Massive biological exchange
  • Changed both the new and old world
    • Exchanged crops & domestic animals & Diseases
  • Caused
    • Population increases in Old World
      • Counterintuitive = need for more colonization
colonial economic systems
Colonial Economic Systems
  • New Spain
    • 80% agriculture & ranching
    • Mining also an essential activity
  • Commercial enterprise
    • Exchange of manufactured goods for raw materials
    • Caused Latin America to become dependent
silver heart of empire
Silver Heart of Empire
  • Silver – major commodity
    • Mines in Mexico & Peru
      • Forced Native American labor
        • First as slaves then as paid labor
  • Govt. monopoly with individual investment
    • Owed the crown one fifth of production.
  • Potosi [Bolivia] largest mine.
haciendas
Haciendas
  • New Spain
    • Agricultural & mining economy
  • Spanish rural estates emerged with decline of native populations
    • Haciendas become source of aristocratic wealth.
industry commerce
Industry & Commerce
  • Herding economy [sheep]
    • Led to women working in sweatshops [textiles]
  • Silver ruled commercial system
    • Caused major inflation in Europe.
  • Spain controlled trade and commerce
    • Manila Galleons
    • Galleons transport b/w China & New World
  • Employed convoy system to protect silver fleets from pirates
political systems
Political Systems
  • Church & State
    • Papal land grants / conversion
  • Treaty of Tordesillas [1494]
  • Viceroys: represented king / legislative / judicial / military power
    • Council of the Indies
  • Clergy: both secular & religious function
  • Inquisition controlled morality & orthodoxy.
plantation economy
Plantation Economy
  • Portuguese in Brazil
      • 1500
      • After French show interest Portuguese nobles move on the area
    • Granted captaincies
  • Jesuits arrive
  • Indian resistance broken b/c
    • Disease – military force – missionary action
sugar slavery
Sugar & Slavery
  • Brazil – world leader in sugar
    • Very expensive
    • Very labor intensive / single crop
  • Hierarchy
    • Nobles & priests
    • Merchants & Govt. officials [bureaucrats]
      • Bureaucracy > lawyers
labor force
Labor Force
  • MISSIONARIES:
  • Ran ranches, mills and schools
      • Mixed bloods, poor whites, Indians & Africans who were > artisans, small farmers, herders or free workers
    • Slaves at the bottom [1/2 pop.]
        • 1st Native American
        • African
brazil gold
Brazil & Gold
  • Brazil lost its place as leader. . .sugar
  • Gold discovered [by Paulistas]
    • Minas Gerais [in Brazil]
      • Mines controlled by Portugal
  • Does not contribute to Portuguese economic development
  • Allowed them to import manufactured goods instead of making their own.
    • Very costly mistake. Big Stupid??
hapsburg rule
Hapsburg Rule
  • 1580 & 1640 – Portugal & Spanish share [Hapsburg] ruler
    • Netherlands in revolt
  • [War of Spanish Succession]
  • British, French, Dutch create sugar plantations in Caribbean
  • Spain looses sugar monopoly
multiracial societies
Multiracial Societies
  • SOCIEDAD DE LAS CASTAS
    • European men & Native American women
    • Mestizo population
      • Similar process with African slaves
  • Social Hierarchy:
  • PENINSULARES- European born settlers
  • CREOLES - New World born [Europeans]
    • Would later lead independence movements
  • MESTIZOS: Mixed races: European – Native Am. – Africans [any combination]
slide34
Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Slaves

18 th c reforms
18th C. Reforms
  • Spain & Portugal
    • 18th C. Intellectual movement
    • New demographic & economic trends
  • European population increases
    • Pressure valve = colonies
  • Long term important consequences detrimental
  • Amigos del pais - reformers
shifting balance of power trade
Shifting Balance of Power & Trade
  • Spain weakened
    • Poor rulers, foreign wars, internal civil & economic problems
  • France – Britain – Holland rise
  • Spain mercantile & political system I
    • War of Spanish Succession
      • Treaty of Utrecht [1713]
  • Bourbon rule in Spain
pombal brazil
Pombal & Brazil
  • Marquis of Pombal
    • Portuguese reformer
      • 1755 1776
  • Suppressed opposition
    • Jesuits expelled 1759
  • Agricultural monopolies [stimulation]
  • Mixed marriages encouraged
  • Little change effected
reforms to revolts
Reforms to Revolts
  • Iberian colonies shared global growth
    • Economic boom >end of 18th C.
  • Reforms disrupt power patterns
  • Revolts:
    • Comunero Revolt [N. Granada]
    • Tupac Amaru revolt in Peru [Indians]
  • Illustrates local dissatisfaction with Imperial policies.
latin america global context
Latin America: Global Context
  • Portugal & Spain
    • Very large colonies
    • Global interaction
  • Recreated Iberia w/ local influences
    • Surviving Indian populations= multicultural & multiethnic society
    • Slavery [African]> role in society
  • Latin American transition is distinct from the west but related to it.
enduring questions
Enduring Questions
  • Trace patterns of economic & political development in New Spain.
  • Examine how those patterns impact Latin America throughout the time periods.
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