Early Latin America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Early Latin America Chapter 19

  2. Spain’s Conquests • Spain set up a colony on Hispaniola in 1493, used the Taino as slaves • Spain replicated this pattern throughout the Caribbean islands, Panama, and Mexico • Forts were established in Havana, San Juan, and Santo Domingo • Spain used the Caribbean to experiment with settlements styles (Indian attacks, Hurricanes, checkerboard layout) • The Adventurous, disappointed, and greedy flocked to the Latin America and later African Slaves to work plantations • Catholicism was presented or forced to the locals

  3. Spain’s Conquests • Diseases killed millions, and livestock numbers increased due to the surplus of land • Native peoples were exploited by taxes, work or just enslaved • Potosi in Peru (Bolivia today) was the greatest Silver mine and had a population of 160,000 • Haciendas were where the aristocracy build wealth and power in the New World • Some priests became Indian rights advocates • King ruled the land from overseas, and governors ruled in their name in the New World

  4. Brazil and Portugal • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) allowed Portugal to keep Brazil, but could not gain more lands West of the line • Brazil was accidently when Cabral was blown off course on his way to India • It was set up as a plantation colony 30 years later (sugar, tropical fruits, later gold found in interior) • Sugar demand in Europe fueled slave demand in Brazil • A Spanish like Bureaucracy emerged • Minas Gerais used 35,000 slaves to mine Gold • Gold allowed churches to grow and employed artists creating an artistic culture

  5. Maps of Empires • i

  6. Brazil Continued w/ Spain Again • Castas emerged making race and place of birth very important • Marriages were arranged and mixed marriages were encouraged by the King of Portugal and Spain • The Bourbon rulers of Spain made reforms to make a stronger centralized government in their empire (Charles III 1759-1788) • Pombal of Portugal reformed Brazil looking to stop Gold theft, tax evasion, and contraband (also abolished slavery in Portugal) • Growth of Europeans and slaves increased to Latin America creating a mix of old and new cultures