Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)! PowerPoint Presentation
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Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)!
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Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)!

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  1. Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)! Phonology is about looking for patterns and arguing your assessment of those patterns (be clear, orderly and logical) Course calendar may change depending on you HW1 due Tues 1/17 – practice for Quiz Quiz 1 is on Tues 1/17; Quiz 2 on Thurs 1/19 About me, you and this course. Webpage: web.pdx.edu/~connjc

  2. Phonetics Review • International Phonetic Alphabet • Sound - symbol correspondence • Transcription • Download IPA font – see class website Go to Peter Ladefoged’s website: http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/

  3. Phonetics Review Transcription International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Break away from spelling IPA is one to one sound-symbol correspondence

  4. Phonetics Review English hen: Broad Narrow [hEn] [hE)n] Transcription Broad transcription Narrow transcription (uses diacritics)

  5. Phonetics Review Oro-nasal process Phonation process Anatomy Articulatory process The glottis = the space between the vocal folds voiced, voiceless, whisper, murmur (breathy) Airstream process Link for vocal fold video 12

  6. Phonetics Review Anatomy

  7. Phonetics Review palate (palatal) velum (velar) alveolar ridge uvula (uvular) lips (labial) Consonant articulation (Places of articulation) teeth (dental) places and manner of articulation video

  8. Phonetics Review blade center back Parts of the tongue Consonant articulation tip front root epiglottis (not tongue) places and manner of articulation video

  9. Phonetics Review Consonants Liquids and glides also grouped together and called approximants say: typical = stops; sufficient = fricatives – vary in place of articulation

  10. Phonetics Review also Glottal Lips Teeth Ridge Roof of Soft Behind top Mouth Palate Teeth Bilabial Labiodental Palato-alveolar Interdental Post-alveolar Places of articulation (for English) LabialDentalAlveolar PalatalVelar

  11. Phonetics Review Consonants so [d] is a voicedalveolarstop Order of 3-part descriptive terms: Voicing -- Place o’ Articulation -- Manner o’ Articulation

  12. Phonetics Review English Consonants: Order of 3-part descriptive terms: Voicing -- Place o’ Articulation -- Manner o’ Articulation

  13. Phonetics Review obstruents English Consonants (voiceless sounds on the left) sonorants

  14. Phonetics Review 11 Places Bilabial – stops, nasals and fricatives Labiodental - stops, nasals, frics, (and affricates [ pf ] )

  15. Phonetics Review 11 Places CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals Dental

  16. Phonetics Review 11 Places CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, nasals 4. Alveolars • Apical = tip of tongue used • Laminal = blade of tongue used

  17. Phonetics Review 11 Places CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, nasals 5. Retroflex - tongue tip pointed up, articulation with underside of tongue (not manner because place is both where and what with tongue)

  18. Phonetics Review 11 Places CORONAL sounds - frics, (affricates), Palato-alveolar - front of tongue domed, tongue tip near alveolar/post-alveolar region (not underside) Alveolo-palatals (like palatal + palato-alveolar) - further back than palato-alveolar, but still tongue tip under alveolar ridge (Chinese and Polish)

  19. Phonetics Review 11 Places CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals Palatal - made with front of tongue and tongue tip down (behind bottom teeth)

  20. Phonetics Review 11 Places DORSAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals Velar Labial velars

  21. Phonetics Review • 11 Places • DORSAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals 9. Uvular – French ‘r’

  22. Phonetics Review • 11 Places • DORSAL sounds - stops, frics – See Agul • 10. Pharyngeal  11. Epiglottal

  23. Phonetics Review Nasals, stops and fricatives (From Ladefoged & Johnson, 2011)

  24. Phonetics Review • MANNERS of Articulation • Trills - articulator set in motion by the current of air • Taps - up and down movement of top of tip of tongue • Flaps - front and back movement of underside of tongue

  25. Phonetics Review • Laterals - approximants, fricatives

  26. Phonetics Review

  27. Phonetics Review

  28. Phonetics Review

  29. Phonetics Review • Different from consonants • A lot more variation (different dialects) • Vowels are in a continuous space and gradient • Described by tongue height and backness • Also by rounding and tense/lax (sometimes not used) Vowels are a 5 part descriptive terms: Height -- Back/Front -- Tense/lax -- Un/Rounded -- Vowel • [i] = high front tense unrounded vowel Vowels (English)

  30. Phonetics Review

  31. Vowels and vowel-like articulations • Vowels - vowel space broken down even more than in English = high = upper mid = lower mid = low Tense/lax or upper/lower height

  32. Q a Phonetics Review Vowel Chart Modified = high = high = upper mid = upper mid = lower mid = lower mid = low = low

  33. Phonetics Review How do vowels and consonants relate to each other in terms of place of articulation?

  34. Q a Phonetics Review How do vowels and consonants relate to each other in terms of place of articulation?

  35. Phonetics Review

  36. Phonetics Review

  37. Speech Production • Coarticulation - more than one articulator is active - please • Articulatory processes - adjustments made during normal speech (not laziness, but often for ease of articulation) • Assimilation • Dissimilation • Deletion • Epenthesis • Metathesis • Vowel Reduction

  38. Articulatory Processes - Assimilation • Assimilation - when the features or characteristics of one sound spread to another sound • Regressive assimilation - if two sounds are together in sequence XY, then some characteristic of Y spreads to X (backwards). Vowel nasalization before a nasal consonant - bed vs. Ben • Progressive assimilation - if two sounds are together in sequence XY, then some characteristic of X spreads to Y (forward). Voiceless liquids and glides - bride vs. pride

  39. Articulatory Processes - Assimilation • Voicing assimilation - a sound takes on the same voicing as a nearby sound • voicing - voiceless sound becomes voiced • devoicing - voiced sound becomes voiceless

  40. Articulatory Processes - Assimilation • Assimilation of place of articulation - a sound takes on the same place of articulation as a nearby sound • Palatalization - making the place of articulation more palatal • Also term used for changing alveolar sound to post-alveolar • Homorganic nasal assimilation - a nasal consonant changes depending on the place of articulation of the following consonant

  41. Articulatory Processes - Assimilation • Assimilation of manner of articulation - a sound takes on the same manner of articulation as a nearby sound • Nasalization - making vowel nasalized • Flapping - between two vowels, an alveolar stop becomes a flap (where first syllable is stressed and second is not) (Flaps are considered continuant so more vowel like)

  42. Articulatory Processes - Dissimilation • Two sounds become less alike • Rare process

  43. Articulatory Processes - Deletion • Process that removes a segment from certain phonetic contexts

  44. Articulatory Processes - Epenthesis • Process that inserts a segment in certain phonetic contexts

  45. Articulatory Processes - Metathesis • Reordering of the sequence of segments

  46. Articulatory Processes - Vowel Reduction • In unstressed syllables, vowels become more central • Common reduced vowels in English: high central unrounded vowel

  47. Articulatory processes - Reviewadjustments made during normal speech (not laziness, but for ease of articulation) • Assimilation - regressive or progressive • Of voicing - voicing or devoicing • Place of articulation - palatalization, homorganic nasal assimilation • Manner of articulation - nasalization, flapping • Dissimilation - orange juice • Deletion - fifs, husban • Epenthesis - warmpth • Metathesis - aks, pisghetti • Vowel Reduction - Ohio or Ohia? Missouri • Examples of stressed, unstressed and reduced vowels

  48. [fo nEkst taIm]: Read chapter 1 and refresh your IPA IPA Quiz 1 on consonants on Tues Jan 17! – Will be given the symbol and you need to match the descriptive terms IPA Quiz 2 on vowels on Thurs Jan 19! – same type of thing as quiz 1 We will finish Phonetics Review and start Ch 2 on Thursday HW = Phonetics IPA practice worksheet handed out on today and due Tues to help study for the quiz