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Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)!. Phonology is about looking for patterns and arguing your assessment of those patterns (be clear, orderly and logical) Course calendar may change depending on you HW1 due Tues 1/17 – practice for Quiz

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slide1
Step 1: Memorize IPA - practice quiz today - real quiz on Tuesday (over consonants)!

Phonology is about looking for patterns and arguing your assessment of those patterns (be clear, orderly and logical)

Course calendar may change depending on you

HW1 due Tues 1/17 – practice for Quiz

Quiz 1 is on Tues 1/17; Quiz 2 on Thurs 1/19

About me, you and this course.

Webpage: web.pdx.edu/~connjc

slide2
Phonetics Review
  • International Phonetic Alphabet
      • Sound - symbol correspondence
      • Transcription
      • Download IPA font – see class website

Go to Peter Ladefoged’s website:

http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/

slide3
Phonetics Review

Transcription

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

Break away from spelling

IPA is one to one sound-symbol correspondence

transcription broad transcription narrow transcription uses diacritics
Phonetics Review

English hen:

Broad Narrow

[hEn] [hE)n]

Transcription

Broad transcription

Narrow transcription (uses diacritics)

anatomy
Phonetics Review

Oro-nasal process

Phonation process

Anatomy

Articulatory process

The glottis = the space between the vocal folds

voiced, voiceless, whisper, murmur (breathy)

Airstream process

Link for vocal fold video 12

consonant articulation places of articulation
Phonetics Review

palate (palatal)

velum (velar)

alveolar ridge

uvula (uvular)

lips (labial)

Consonant articulation (Places of articulation)

teeth (dental)

places and manner of articulation video

parts of the tongue consonant articulation
Phonetics Review

blade

center

back

Parts of the tongue

Consonant articulation

tip

front

root

epiglottis (not tongue)

places and manner of articulation video

slide9
Phonetics Review

Consonants

Liquids and glides also grouped together and called approximants

say: typical = stops; sufficient = fricatives – vary in place of articulation

places of articulation for english labial dental alveolar palatal velar
Phonetics Review

also Glottal

Lips Teeth Ridge Roof of Soft

Behind top Mouth Palate

Teeth

Bilabial Labiodental Palato-alveolar

Interdental Post-alveolar

Places of articulation (for English)

LabialDentalAlveolar PalatalVelar

order of 3 part descriptive terms voicing place o articulation manner o articulation
Phonetics Review

Consonants

so [d] is a voicedalveolarstop

Order of 3-part descriptive terms:

Voicing -- Place o’ Articulation -- Manner o’ Articulation

slide12
Phonetics Review

English Consonants: Order of 3-part descriptive terms:

Voicing -- Place o’ Articulation -- Manner o’ Articulation

english consonants voiceless sounds on the left
Phonetics Review

obstruents

English Consonants (voiceless sounds on the left)

sonorants

slide15
Phonetics Review

11 Places

Bilabial – stops, nasals and fricatives

Labiodental - stops, nasals, frics, (and affricates [ pf ] )

slide16
Phonetics Review

11 Places

CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals

Dental

slide17
Phonetics Review

11 Places

CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, nasals

4. Alveolars

  • Apical = tip of tongue used
  • Laminal = blade of tongue used
slide18
Phonetics Review

11 Places

CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, nasals

5. Retroflex - tongue tip pointed up, articulation with underside of tongue (not manner because place is both where and what with tongue)

slide19
Phonetics Review

11 Places

CORONAL sounds - frics, (affricates),

Palato-alveolar - front of tongue domed, tongue tip near alveolar/post-alveolar region (not underside)

Alveolo-palatals (like palatal + palato-alveolar) - further back than palato-alveolar, but still tongue tip under alveolar ridge (Chinese and Polish)

slide20
Phonetics Review

11 Places

CORONAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals

Palatal - made with front of tongue and tongue tip down (behind bottom teeth)

slide21
Phonetics Review

11 Places

DORSAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals

Velar

Labial velars

slide22
Phonetics Review
  • 11 Places
  • DORSAL sounds - stops, frics, (affricates), nasals

9. Uvular – French ‘r’

slide23
Phonetics Review
  • 11 Places
  • DORSAL sounds - stops, frics – See Agul
  • 10. Pharyngeal 

11. Epiglottal

slide24
Phonetics Review

Nasals, stops and fricatives (From Ladefoged & Johnson, 2011)

slide25
Phonetics Review
  • MANNERS of Articulation
  • Trills - articulator set in motion by the current of air
  • Taps - up and down movement of top of tip of tongue
  • Flaps - front and back movement of underside of tongue
slide26
Phonetics Review
  • Laterals - approximants, fricatives
slide30
Phonetics Review
  • Different from consonants
  • A lot more variation (different dialects)
  • Vowels are in a continuous space and gradient
  • Described by tongue height and backness
  • Also by rounding and tense/lax (sometimes not used)

Vowels are a 5 part descriptive terms:

Height -- Back/Front -- Tense/lax -- Un/Rounded -- Vowel

  • [i] = high front tense unrounded vowel

Vowels (English)

slide32
Vowels and vowel-like articulations
  • Vowels - vowel space broken down even more than in English

= high

= upper mid

= lower mid

= low

Tense/lax or upper/lower height

slide33
Q

a

Phonetics Review

Vowel Chart Modified

= high

= high

= upper mid

= upper mid

= lower mid

= lower mid

= low

= low

slide34
Phonetics Review

How do vowels and consonants relate to each other in terms of place of articulation?

slide35
Q

a

Phonetics Review

How do vowels and consonants relate to each other in terms of place of articulation?

slide38
Speech Production
  • Coarticulation - more than one articulator is active - please
  • Articulatory processes - adjustments made during normal speech (not laziness, but often for ease of articulation)
    • Assimilation
    • Dissimilation
    • Deletion
    • Epenthesis
    • Metathesis
    • Vowel Reduction
slide39
Articulatory Processes - Assimilation
  • Assimilation - when the features or characteristics of one sound spread to another sound
  • Regressive assimilation - if two sounds are together in sequence XY, then some characteristic of Y spreads to X (backwards).

Vowel nasalization before a nasal consonant - bed vs. Ben

  • Progressive assimilation - if two sounds are together in sequence XY, then some characteristic of X spreads to Y (forward).

Voiceless liquids and glides - bride vs. pride

slide40
Articulatory Processes - Assimilation
  • Voicing assimilation - a sound takes on the same voicing as a nearby sound
  • voicing - voiceless sound becomes voiced
  • devoicing - voiced sound becomes voiceless
slide41
Articulatory Processes - Assimilation
  • Assimilation of place of articulation - a sound takes on the same place of articulation as a nearby sound
  • Palatalization - making the place of articulation more palatal
    • Also term used for changing alveolar sound to post-alveolar
    • Homorganic nasal assimilation - a nasal consonant changes depending on the place of articulation of the following consonant
slide42
Articulatory Processes - Assimilation
  • Assimilation of manner of articulation - a sound takes on the same manner of articulation as a nearby sound
  • Nasalization - making vowel nasalized
  • Flapping - between two vowels, an alveolar stop becomes a flap (where first syllable is stressed and second is not) (Flaps are considered continuant so more vowel like)
slide43
Articulatory Processes - Dissimilation
  • Two sounds become less alike
  • Rare process
slide44
Articulatory Processes - Deletion
  • Process that removes a segment from certain phonetic contexts
slide45
Articulatory Processes - Epenthesis
  • Process that inserts a segment in certain phonetic contexts
slide46
Articulatory Processes - Metathesis
  • Reordering of the sequence of segments
slide47
Articulatory Processes - Vowel Reduction
  • In unstressed syllables, vowels become more central
  • Common reduced vowels in English:

high central

unrounded vowel

slide48
Articulatory processes - Reviewadjustments made during normal speech (not laziness, but for ease of articulation)
        • Assimilation - regressive or progressive
          • Of voicing - voicing or devoicing
          • Place of articulation - palatalization, homorganic nasal assimilation
          • Manner of articulation - nasalization, flapping
        • Dissimilation - orange juice
        • Deletion - fifs, husban
        • Epenthesis - warmpth
        • Metathesis - aks, pisghetti
        • Vowel Reduction - Ohio or Ohia? Missouri
  • Examples of stressed, unstressed and reduced vowels
slide49
[fo nEkst taIm]:

Read chapter 1 and refresh your IPA

IPA Quiz 1 on consonants on Tues Jan 17! – Will be given the symbol and you need to match the descriptive terms

IPA Quiz 2 on vowels on Thurs Jan 19! – same type of thing as quiz 1

We will finish Phonetics Review and start Ch 2 on Thursday

HW = Phonetics IPA practice worksheet handed out on today and due Tues to help study for the quiz

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