BLAST Similarity Searching Spring 2008 Clark University
BLAST BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) allows rapid sequence comparison of a query sequence against a database. The BLAST algorithm is fast, accurate, and web-accessible.
Why use BLAST? • BLAST searching is fundamental to understanding • the relatedness of any favorite query sequence • to other known proteins or DNA sequences. • Applications include • identifying orthologs and paralogs • discovering new genes or proteins • discovering variants of genes or proteins • investigating expressed sequence tags (ESTs) • exploring protein structure and function
Four components to a BLAST search (1) Choose the sequence (query) (2) Select the BLAST program (3) Choose the database to search (4) Choose optional parameters Then click “BLAST”
Step 1: Choose your sequence Sequence can be input in FASTA format or as accession number
Step 2: Choose the BLAST program blastn (nucleotide BLAST) blastp (protein BLAST) tblastn (translated BLAST) blastx (translated BLAST) tblastx (translated BLAST)
Choose the BLAST program Program Input Database 1 blastn DNA DNA 1 blastp protein protein 6 blastx DNA protein 6 tblastn protein DNA 36 tblastx DNA DNA
DNA potentially encodes six proteins • DNA can be translated into six potential proteins 5’ CAT CAA 5’ ATC AAC 5’ TCA ACT 5’ CATCAACTACAACTCCAAAGACACCCTTACACATCAACAAACCTACCCAC 3’ 3’ GTAGTTGATGTTGAGGTTTCTGTGGGAATGTGTAGTTGTTTGGATGGGTG 5’ 5’ GTG GGT 5’ TGG GTA 5’ GGG TAG
Step 3: choose the database nr = non-redundant (most general database) dbest = database of expressed sequence tags dbsts = database of sequence tag sites gss = genomic survey sequences htgs = high throughput genomic sequence
Step 4a: Select optional search parameters Entrez! Filter Expect Word size organism Scoring matrix
The Expected Value “E” The expected (average) number of alignments with scores bigger than or equal to “S” that are expected to occur by chance.
BLAST: optional parameters You can... • choose the organism to search • turn filtering on/off • change the substitution matrix • change the expect (e) value • change the word size • change the output format
Step 4b: optional formatting parameters Alignment view Descriptions Alignments
program query database taxonomy
High scores low e values Cut-off: .05? 10-10?
BLAST: background on sequence alignment There are two main approaches to sequence alignment:  Global alignment (Needleman & Wunsch 1970) using dynamic programming to find optimal alignments between two sequences. Gaps are permittedin the alignments, and the total lengths of both sequences are aligned (hence “global”).
BLAST: background on sequence alignment  The second approach is local sequence alignment (Smith & Waterman, 1980). The alignment may contain just a portion of either sequence, and is appropriate for finding matched domains between sequences. S-W is guaranteed to find optimal alignments, but it is computationally expensive. BLAST and FASTA are heuristic approximations to local alignment; they examine only part of the search space.
How a BLAST search works “The central idea of the BLAST algorithm is to confine attention to segment pairs that contain a word pair of length w with a score of at least T.” Altschul et al. (1990)
How the original BLAST algorithm works: 3 phases Phase 1: compile a list of word pairs (w = 3) above threshold T Example: for a human RBP query …FSGTWYA… (query word is in yellow) A list of words (w = 3) is: FSG SGT GTW TWY WYA YSG TGT ATW SWY WFA FTG SVT GSW TWF WYS
Phase 1: compile a list of words (w=3) GTW 6,5,11 22 neighborhood GSW 6,1,11 18 word hits ATW 0,5,11 16 > threshold DTW -1,5,11 15 GTY 6,5, 2 13 GNW 10 GAW 9 word hits below threshold (T=11)
How a BLAST search works: 3 phases Phase 2: Scan the database for entries that match the compiled list. This is fast and relatively easy.
How a BLAST search works: 3 phases Phase 3: when you manage to find a hit (i.e. a match between a “word” and a database entry), extend the hit in either direction. Keep track of the score (use a scoring matrix) Stop when the score drops below some cutoff. KENFDKARFSGTWYAMAKKDPEG 50 RBP (query) MKGLDIQKVAGTWYSLAMAASD. 44 lactoglobulin (hit) extend extend Hit!
How a BLAST search works: 3 phases Phase 3: In the original (1990) implementation of BLAST, hits were extended in either direction. In a 1997 refinement of BLAST, two independent hits are required. The hits must occur in close proximity to each other (40 nt). With this modification, only one seventh as many extensions occur, greatly speeding the time required for a search.
How a BLAST search works: threshold You can modify the threshold parameter. The default value for blastp is 11. To change it, enter “-f 16” or “-f 5” in the advanced options.
lower T slower Search speed faster higher T
better lower T slower Sensitivity Search speed faster worse higher T
better large w lower T slower Sensitivity Search speed faster worse small w higher T
better large w lower T slower Sensitivity Search speed faster worse small w higher T For proteins, default word size is 3. (This yields a more accurate result than 2.)
How to interpret a BLAST search: expect value It is important to assess the statistical significance of search results. For global alignments, the statistics are poorly understood. For local alignments (including BLAST search results), the scores follow an extreme value distribution (EVD) rather than a normal distribution.
How to interpret a BLAST search: expect value The expect value E is the number of alignments with scores greater than or equal to score S that are expected to occur by chance in a database search. An E value is related to a probability value p. The key equation describing an E value is: E = Kmn e-lS
0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 normal distribution probability 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x