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EC EC LOGY LOGY & ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT Ricky & Sky (2011)
1. INTRODUCTION Eco-system
1. INTRODUCTION Eco-system • Ecosystems (ecological systems) • functional units - interactions of abiotic, biotic, and cultural (anthropogenic) components. • Combination of interacting, interrelated parts that form a unitary whole. • “Open" systems - energy and matter are transferred in and out. • TheEarth- constantly converts solar energy into myriad organic products, & has increased in biological complexity over time.
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT World map of countries shaded according to their ecological footprint in 2006 (published on 25 November 2009 by the Global Footprint Network).
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Definition • The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. • It is a standardized measure of demand for natural capitalthat may be contrasted with the planet's ecological capacity to regenerate. (Ewing et al, 2010) • Highlights the reality of ecological scarcity. • Measures the impact of consumption and subsequent waste discharge (including consumption of food, housing, transportation, consumer goods and services) by converting impact variables into the single unit of land. • Includes land appropriated by fossil energy use, the built environment, gardens, crop land, pasture, managed forest and land of limited availability, including untouched forests and non-productive areas such as deserts and icecaps.
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Do you fit on the planet? • Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1.3 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means it now takes the Earth one year and four months to regenerate what we use in a year. • Moderate UN scenarios suggest that if current population and consumption trends continue, by the mid 2030s we will need the equivalent of two Earths to support us. And of course, we only have one. • Turning resources into waste faster than waste can be turned back into resources puts us in global ecological overshoot, depleting the very resources on which human life and biodiversity depend. • Dividing the 11.2 billion hectares available by the global population indicates that there are on average 1.8 bioproductive hectares per person on the planet. The 2004 Living Planet Report indicates that the actual usage was 13.5 billion global hectares or 2.2 hectares per person – more than a 20% overshoot. Since the 1970s, humanity has been in ecological overshoot with annual demand on resources exceeding what Earth can regenerate each year. (Global Footprint Network, 2011) http://www.footprintnetwork.org/images/uploads/Number_of_Planets_Scenarios2007.jpg
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT • At the current rate humanity is using natural resources and producing waste, by the mid-2030s we will require the resources of two planets to meet our demands. • The Living Planet Report 2008 reports that in 2005, humanity's Ecological Footprint was 31 per cent larger than the planet's capacity to produce these resources. If everyone in the world lived like an average European, we would need three planets to live on…
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT • “… the enormous social and economic inequities that exist within countries, and even more blatantly worldwide, are not only inhumane, but also threaten everybody security.” Wackernagel, Mathis (2001) • A true sustainability package must devise more courageous strategies to promote equity, rather than just promising more production. How?
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT One Planet Living • Vision: A world in which people everywhere can lead happy, healthy lives within their fair share of the Earth’s resources. • global initiative based on 10 principlesof sustainability developed by BioRegional and WWF. • Address key human needs - housing, clothing, food, healthcare, education, energy, transport and leisure.
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Biophilia design
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Biophilia Design ? • An instinctive bond between human beings and other living systems • Biophilia as the "innate tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes.(Edward O. Wilson, 1984) • Love of life or living systems (Fromm, Erich (1964)) Opening the Door to Nature
2. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT • Contributors to go beyond the standard Green Architecture goal of simply lowering the Environmental Impact of Buildings • Enhance the human Relationship with Nature through buildings Why? How? • Create connection between interior and exterior surfaces, • Natural ventilation, • A direct physical connection to nature from interior spaces, and • Direct visual access to nature from interior spaces. • The use of dynamic and diffuse daylight • The ability to have frequent, spontaneous and repeated contact with nature throughout and between buildings, • The use of local, natural materials, +
3. GREEN ENERGY Renewal Energy Green Energy? • Energyproduced in a manner that has less of a negative impact to the environment. • Energy produced from energy sources that are environmentally more friendly (or "greener") compared to fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas).
Goal & Benefit 3. GREEN ENERGY • To create power with as Little Pollution as a by-product. • To cause less than those that are not. People claim that the result of worldwide use of green energy will result in the ability to Preservethe Planetfor a Longer Time. • Preserve the Ecosystem of the planet What to Achieve?
3. GREEN ENERGY What is Consider Green Energy?
3. GREEN ENERGY Zero Carbon Approach
3. GREEN ENERGY Low Carbon Principle 1.Reduce underlying energy demand. 2.Meet energy demand efficiently. 3.Meet demand through energy generated using low and zero carbon technologies (LZCs). 4.Effective management of energy use and carbon emissions.
3. GREEN ENERGY 5.Meeting energy demands using LZCs embedded in individual buildings 6.Exporting low or zero carbon electricity and heat generated on-site and subtracting the carbon emissions savings from the residual emissions arising on-site.
Reference • Wackernagel, Mathis (2001), Advancing Sustainable Resource Management: Using Ecological Footprint Analysis for Problem Formulation, Policy Development and Communication, Redefining Progress, Oakland, page 4. • Ewing et al (2010) Calculation methodology for the national Footprint accounts, 2010 EditIon. Retrieved from http://www.footprintnetwork.org/images/uploads/National_Footprint_Accounts_Method_Paper_2010.pdf • Global footprint network (29 Oct 2008) New Data Shows Humanity’s Ecological Debt Compounding. Retrieved 10 Oct 2011 from http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/blog/ab_new_data_shows_humanitys_ecological_debt_compounding • Reo City (22 Oct 2009) World Footprint . Retrieved 10 Oct 2011 from http://reocities.com/davd.geo/ • Delft University of Technology, The Model of the Eco-costs / Value Ratio (EVR). Retrieved 10 Oct 2011 from http://www.ecocostsvalue.com/httpdocs/content/html/9-ecologicalfootprint.html • WWF (2011) Living Planet Report. Retrieved from http://www.footprintnetwork.org/press/LPR2010.pdf • Spirituality and Ecological Hope (22 March 2009 ) Waste and Hope. Retrieved 10 Oct 2011 from http://www.ecologicalhope.org/featured/waste-and-hope/ • Stephen R Kellert, Judith Heerwagen, Martin Mador (2008) Elements of biophilic design : the theory, science, and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken : Wiley, 2008. • AmjadAlmusaed (2001) Biophilic and bioclimatic architecture : analytical therapy for the next generation of passive sustainable architecture. London ; New York : Springer • Stephen R Kellert (2005) Building for life : designing and understanding the human-nature connection. Washington, DC : Island Pres • Wilson, Edward O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07442-4. • Bill Millard (July 14, 2011) Designing the building-landscape interface. Retrieved from http://www.greenarchitext.com/2011/07/designing-the-building-landscape-interface.html • JEREMY FALUDI (6 MAY 2004) Biophilia. Retrieved from http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/000664.html • Judith Heerwagen (03 Aug 2001) Building Biophilia: Connecting People to Nature in Building Design. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=8543 • Elizabeth Molthrop (11 Jun 2011) Biophilic Design, A Review of Principle and Practice. Retrieved from http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/11s_final-37-39.pdf
Merci… NEW GREEN TOWER IN MIAMI – The COR Building