Environment . By Quhao Huang. Who is Rachel Carson?. Rachel Carson was born and grew up on a farm in Pennsylvania and she dreamed of becoming a writer.
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Environment By Quhao Huang
Who is Rachel Carson? • Rachel Carson was born and grew up on a farm in Pennsylvania and she dreamed of becoming a writer. • In 1962, Rachel Carson's book was published namely Silent Spring. She carefully researched over 4 years, the book documented the dangers of using DDT
What is DDT? (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) • DDT is a kind of chemical that use to kill insects, although remarkably effective in destroying certain living things that are harmful to plants and animals, it can also be extremely dangerous to humans and the environment. • DDT the first of the chlorinated organic insecticides, was originally prepared in 1873 • In 1939 Paul Muller of Geigy Pharmaceutical in Switzerland discovered the effectiveness of DDT as an insecticide he was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology in 1948 for this discovery
Gordon Edwards • He is a well-known entomologist (entomologist is someone who specializing in the study of butterflies and moths ) who documents some of the misstatements in Carson’s Silent Spring
After the Published • In 1962, when Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring, I was delighted. I belonged to several environmental-type organizations, had no feelings of respect for industry or big business, had one of my own books published by the Sierra Club, and I had written articles for The Indiana Waltonian, Audubon Magazine, and other environmental magazines.
A Lie • Page 17 . Carson says arsenic is a carcinogen and mentions a great many horrible ways in which it is violently poisonous to vertebrates. She then says(page 18) :” Modern insecticides are still more deadly” and she makes a special mention of DDT as an example. This implication that DDT is horribly deadly is completely false
Human Volunteers have ingested as much as 35milligrams of it a day for nearly two years and suffered no adverse affect.
Millions of people have lived with DDT intimately during the mosquito spray programs and nobody even got sick as a result • In house spraying, the amount applied was 2 grams of DDT per square meter of wall, every 6 month
DDT’s contribution • The World Health Organization Director concluded,” The discontinuation of the use of DDT would be disaster to world health” • The national Academy of Sciences concluded in 1965 that” in a little more than two decades, DDT has prevent 500 million human deaths that would otherwise have been inevitable ”
Tiger MosquitoAnopheles, the mosquito that carries malaria, which kills 2 to 3 million people a year (Pan American Health Organization/ World Health Organization)
Result • A leading British scientist pointed out that “If the pressure groups had succeeded, if there had been a world ban on DDT, then Rachel Carson and Silent Spring would now be killing more people in a single year than Hitler killed in his whole holocaust.”
The Environment movement of America Conquering the nature was the topic People feel more interesting to talk about before the movement Dated to the 1962 pollution of Silence Spring Negative reactions
The effects of using DDT Increase the income of conglomerate on DDT Enhance the rate of outputting Protect human from the Disease spread through bad insects Developing resistance Directly Harms human’s health Long-term earth and water pollution
Ways that may instead of the using of DDT • Alternative insecticides • Bed nets • The ACT---a combination of drugs called arterminsinin-based combination therapy
The Environmental movement of America April 22, 1970 the first Earth Day celebration Dated to the 1962 pollution of Silence Spring Conquering the nature was the topic People feel more interestingto talk about before the movement
The effects of using DDT Pros: Increase the income of conglomerates on chemical industry Enhance the rate of outputting Protect human from the Disease spread through harmful insects Cons: Developing resistance “The question that has now urgently . . . Resistance to insecticides by mosquitoes . . . has surged upwards at an astounding rate.” (Silence spring,16) Break ecological balance Directly Harms human’s health “DDT leads to significant decreases in mental and physical functioning among young children”(American Journal of Epidemiology, 2006) DDT Exposure Linked to Increased Rates of Liver Cancer.(Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2006) Long-term earth and water pollution
Many ways that can instead the using of DDT • Alternative insecticides • bed nets • The ACT---a combination of drugs called artemisinin-based combination therapy • Hybrid Rice
Reference • McGlynn K, Abnet C, Zhang M, et al. Serum Concentrations of 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and Risk of Primary Liver Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006; 98: 1005-1010. • Swartz, Aaron. "Rachel Carson, Mass Murderer?" Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR). Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=3186>. • Carson, Rachel. "Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson, Introduction by Linda Lear." American Buddha Online Library. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.american-buddha.com/lit.silentspring.16.htm>.