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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. In this experiment we modeled the structure of DNA and the processes involved in protein synthesis. By: Shelley Quirk. Equipment. 42 toothpicks 18 milk bottles cut in half (36 halves) – sugar 18 raspberry lollies cut in half- phosphate

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protein synthesis

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

In this experiment we modeled the structure of DNA and the processes involved in protein synthesis

By: Shelley Quirk

slide2

Equipment

  • 42 toothpicks
  • 18 milk bottles cut in half (36 halves) – sugar
  • 18 raspberry lollies cut in half- phosphate
  • 25 jelly beans cut in half (5 of each 5 colours)- bases:
  • Adenosine- orange
  • Thymine- purple
  • Cytosine- pink
  • Guanine- green
  • Uracil- blue
  • 4 jelly snake, aprox. 6cm long, different colours
  • A4 white paper representing a cell
  • Colored paper circle, 6cm diameter- a ribosome
  • Clean sharp knife
  • Cutting board
  • Gloves
  • Scissors
  • Marking pen
  • Heinemann Biology textbook
slide3

DNA is a double stranded helix molecule made of subunits called nucleotides.

  • Each nucleotide contains a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate, and a base.
  • There are four bases (adenosine, thymine, cytosine and guanine).
  • Alternate sugar and phosphates form the sides with bases connected to the sugars making “rungs” like a ladder.
slide4

The information about the number, type and sequence of amino acids, needed to make a protein molecule, is found as a code in DNA.

The code- a sequence of bases.

One gene sequence codes for one polypeptide (a single chain of many amino acids)

A set of 3 bases (a codon) codes for one amino acid of a polypeptide.

A protein is one or more polypeptides.

slide6

RNA polymerase enzyme moves along the exposed single DNA strand linking complementary RNA nucleotides together to form a messenger RNA strand.

RNA contains the base uracil where thymine is found in DNA.

slide7

The mRNA strand is then modified so that it only consists of the base sequence that will code for the protein. It removes the non-coding regions, introns, while still in the nucleus by splicing the coding regions, exons, together.

  • The modified mRNA then moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm
  • The start codon (AUG) and a stop codon control the length of the mRNA strand.
slide8

In the cytoplasm, an enzyme attaches amino acids to tRNA molecules. Each type of amino acid is attached to its specific tRNA.

translation
TRANSLATION
  • The start codon (AUG) end of the mRNA strand binds onto a ribosome. A tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine at one end and anticodon (UAC) at the other, binds to the mRNA start codon within the ribosome.

DNA strand

Amino acid forming polypeptide bond (jelly snakes)

Ribosome

mRNA strand

slide11

A second tRNA binds to the next codon. Its amino acid links to the polypeptide bond of the first amino acid.

  • The first tRNA is released from the ribosome. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand one codon at a time. Two tRNAs at a time are temporarily bound within the ribosome and their amino acids linked together

DNA strand

Amino acid forming polypeptide bond (jelly snakes)

Ribosome

mRNA strand

slide12

When a ‘stop’ codon isreached the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm

A polypeptide chain forms (jelly snakes)