Numerical Modeling and Observation of the Fine Sediments in
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Numerical Modeling and Observation of the Fine Sediments in the Rio de la Plata Estuary Claudia G. Simionato CIMA/CONICET-UBA. 2 nd MEETING OF IFAECI (UMI 3351) Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 25 th 2011. Outline. History of the cooperation France-Argentina-Uruguay

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2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Numerical Modeling and Observation of the Fine Sediments inthe Rio de la Plata EstuaryClaudia G. SimionatoCIMA/CONICET-UBA

2nd MEETING OF IFAECI (UMI 3351)

Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 25th 2011


Outline
Outline

  • History of the cooperation France-Argentina-Uruguay

  • Reasons to study and model sediments

  • Achievements of the FREPLATA/FFEM Project

  • Pending scientific questions

  • Actions to increase cooperation

  • Ongoing projects and submitted proposals

  • What possibilities we see in the frame of the UMI


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

This cooperation starts as an initiative of IFREMER which manifested interest in applying its large experience in sedimentological observation and modeling to the Río de la Plata


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Efforts to understand processes in the Río de la Plata had already started in the frame of the FREPLATA I Project, but sedimentology was not included yet


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

The contact between IFREMER and the regional research centers with interest and potential started


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

A proposal oriented to begin studies on sedimentological processes was submitted to the French Fund for the Global Environment (FFEM) and a budget of around €1,200,000 was approved

CARP

CTMFM


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Why the study of the fine sediments dynamics is a key scientific issue? Social and environmental impacts


Contamination

Contamination scientific issue?


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Sediments moved by the flow are the main source of contaminants, particularly heavy metals.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

In the MTZ sediments (and contaminants) are accumulated at the bottom  flocculation, reduction of the current speed?


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Sediments are then resuspended by tides, currents and waves and contaminants enter in the trophic chain, with impact on fishes and people


2 dredging

2. and contaminants enter in the trophic chain, with impact on fishes and peopleDredging:


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

The entrance channels to the harbors of Buenos Aires and Montevideo demand continuous dredging


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Optimization of the dredging operations is an important issue, which demands the understanding of the sedimentological dynamics


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Ecological problems issue, which demands the understanding of the sedimentological dynamics what to do with the highly contaminated muds dredged on harbors?


3 degradation of coasts and wetlands

3. issue, which demands the understanding of the sedimentological dynamicsDegradation of coasts and wetlands:



2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

It houses a rich ecosystem in which a large number of species of crabs, fishes, turtles and migratory birds live.

It is also the nursing area for a number of species commercially fished.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Ongoing projects show that the bay is being eroded at very high rates, apparently by changes in the wind and waves climate



2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Also, the shallow areas of the internal part of the system, where Buenos Aires is located, are object of large erosion and environmental pressure because of anthropogenic actions.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

The Paraná River Delta progresses over the Río de la Plata. At the present growing rates it will be very close to Buenos Aires at the end of this century.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

This morphological evolution will cause impacts on the uses of the Río de la Plata: drinking water, sailing, amusement, dredging, etc.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

It will affect, particularly the Mitre Channel (access to Buenos Aires Port).

The consequences of the changes can be mitigated only with planning, what needs as primary information the understanding and modeling of the sedimentological processes.


Primary production

Primary production Buenos Aires Port). :


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Turbidity is the main limitation to the phytoplankton grow. Therefore the modeling of the population dynamics rely on a proper modeling of the sedimentological variables.


5 fisheries

5. Fisheries Therefore the modeling of the population dynamics rely on a proper modeling of the sedimentological variables.:


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Environmental conditions have major influence on the distribution and structure of the species in the Río de la Plata.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

A connection (it is not clear yet whether this is causal or casual) is observed between the spawning regions and the turbidity front.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Understanding the relationship between the environment and the fisheries is crucial for suggesting protection and conservation plans in an ecosystemic management.


6 bentonic organisms

6. Bentonic organisms the fisheries is crucial for suggesting protection and conservation plans in an ecosystemic management.:


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

´The bentonic organisms are very dependent upon the bentonic environment.

Therefore, the distribution of sediments determines in a large extent the diversity in a region.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

The morphodynamical evolution by natural causes or anthropogenic action can, therefore, have a large impact on the biodiversity of the estuary


Understanding and modeling sedimentological processes is not easy

Understanding and modeling sedimentological processes is not easy…

The aim of the FREPLATA/FFEM project was to set up the capabilities for state of the arts sediments modeling at the scale of the basin


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Sedimentological processes are many and very complex: transportation, decantation, flocculation, saltation, resuspension, consolidation…Its modeling demands understanding and good modeling capabilities of the hydrodynamics(tides, waves, currents, density field)In contrast with the hydrodynamical processes, which obey to universal physical laws, sedimentology is highly dependent on the site  need of a large number of observations


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

The Río de la Plata presents its transportation, decantation, flocculation, saltation, resuspension, consolidation…own challenges

230 km

320 km

50 km

Very large and shallow

Large runoff

Enormous solid discharge

In contrast with most of estuaries, highly sensitive to wind variability



Working groups
Working groups integral

Hydrosedimentological modeling: IMFIA, CIMA, INA, IFREMER

Waves modeling: SHN

Data acquisition: SHN, SOHMA, INIDEP (cooperation of IFREMER, CIMA and IMFIA)

Data analysis: INIDEP, SHN, CIMA, IMFIA, INA, IFREMER



1 formation of human resources
1. Formation of human resources integral

Fellowship for a PhD student at CIMA (Diego Moreira)

Receiving a postdoc from IFREMER (at CIMA) (Caroline Tessier)

Courses at Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FCEN-UBA) training to students and researchers on sediments dynamics, observation, modeling and metrology (Florence Cayocca, Francis Gohin, Pierre Le Hir, Valerie Garnier, Michel Repecaud)


2 collection of all the historical data and construction of a data repository
2. Collection of all the historical data and construction of a data repository

  • Tides

  • Current

  • Waves

  • Bottom and suspended sediments

  • Bathymetry

  • Others…


3 acquisition of a unique data base of hydrosedimentological variables
3. Acquisition of a unique data base of hydrosedimentological variables

  • Fixed stations  time series with high temporal resolution

  • Oceanographic cruises  synoptic view and high vertical resolution; installation and maintenance of the instruments

  • Satellite observations  longer term data; synoptic view


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Fixed stations: hydrosedimentological variables

Torre Oyarvide

Pilote Norden

Pressure (waves)

Temperature, salinity

Turbidity

SMATCH TT


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Oceanographic buoy hydrosedimentological variables

The buoy measures:

meteorological variables

temperature, salinity, turbidity, oxígen, chlorophyll-a,

currents (ADCP)

Data are currently received at CIMA


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

7 oceanographic cruises with 26 stations each hydrosedimentological variables(CTD, chlorophyll, turbidity, water and sediments samples)

1 included yo-yo stations


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Remote sensing data calibration and analysis hydrosedimentological variables

MODIS and SeaWifs in 1 km y 250m, calibrated to SM and chlorophyll-a with IFREMER’s algorithms

Data were analyzed to observe the main patterns of variability in the estuary

http://www.ifremer.fr/nausicaa2/rioplata


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

4. hydrosedimentological variablesLaboratory experiments

Understanding the consolidation processes


5 implementation of the ifremer s hydrosedimentological mars model for the r o de la plata
5. Implementation of the IFREMER’s hydrosedimentological MARS model for the Río de la Plata

Hierarchy of one-way nested models


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

  • The advances in numerical modeling have been: MARS model for the Río de la Plata

  • Installation of the model at CIMA, INA and IMFIA

  • Validation of the hydrodynamics (tides and wind effect)

  • Precalibration of the sedimentology and first sensitivity studies

  • First process oriented simulations

  • We can provide a copy of the final report to those who might be interested


Main achievements of freplata ffem project
Main achievements of FREPLATA/FFEM project MARS model for the Río de la Plata

  • Developing of a network of researchers and institutions  good dynamics among participants and excellent possibilities for cooperative and synergic multidisciplinary research

  • Acquisition of a unique data base of hydrosedimentological variables

  • Formation of human resources

  • Installation of capabilities in data acquisition, metrology and numerical modeling of hydrosedimentological processes in several institutions of Argentina and Uruguay


What needs to be done in the future
What needs to be done in the future? MARS model for the Río de la Plata


What needs to be done in the future1
What needs to be done in the future? MARS model for the Río de la Plata

  • Data acquisition and analysis

  • Maintain the monitoring system operational  long term records!

  • Improve observations in areas where there are still few data (for instance Samborombón Bay)

  • Develop specific calibration algorithms for the satellite images for the Río de la Plata and facilities for local processing

  • Exhaustive analysis of the data base collected during the project


What needs to be done in the future2
What needs to be done in the future? MARS model for the Río de la Plata

  • Modeling

  • Complete the calibration of the model with the new data

  • Improve/adjust the parameterizations for the region

  • Add to the simulations more complex processes not included in the first studies

  • Begin the installation of other model’s modules

  • Improve wave modeling

  • Progress on operational modeling

  • Start building managements tools


What needs to be done in the future3
What needs to be done in the future? MARS model for the Río de la Plata

  • Processes

  • Study the sensitivity of the sedimentological variables to natural variability/changes in the forcing

  • Understand the processes that maintain the MTZ

  • Understand and predict the morphological evolution

  • Understand the relationships between the environment and fisheries

  • Start biogeochemical numerical modeling studies and water quality studies



2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Identification of new actors to produce synergy the cooperation?

INIDEP is developing a new remote sensing program and is interested on color data processing (resp. Carlos Lasta)

IAFE-CONICET is doing effort in the same direction (resp. Antonio Gagliardini)

 Contacts and interactions already started


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Identification of new actors to produce synergy the cooperation?

CERC (Centro de Estudios Regionales Costeros) and INIDEP are developing fisheries studies and collecting samples in the Río de la Plata (resp. Andrés Jaureguizar); they are incorporating PNA (Coast Guard) ships to make permanent monitoring and to assist in campaigns.

 Contacts and interactions already started


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Identification of new actors to produce synergy the cooperation?

FREPLATA II is a management project which aim is to start up the application of the Strategic Action Plan to reduce contamination and restore habitats proposed by FREPLATA I (Percy Nuggent)

The monitoring of the Río de la Plata is one of their needs  they will probably be interested in contributing to maintain the instruments operating

 Contacts and interactions already started (meeting on May 3rd)


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Identification of new actors to produce synergy the cooperation?

SHN and DG-FCEN are conducting a project which aim is to observe and study the coastal erosion in the Buenos Aires littoral, including Samborombón Bay (resp. Walter Dragani and Jorge Codignotto)

Our researches are complementary.

 CIMA and CERC are already cooperating in the project


Towards further cooperation with the uruguayan institutions
Towards further cooperation with the Uruguayan institutions the cooperation?

CONICET (Dr. Jorge Tezón and collaborators) is doing actions in order to sign an agreement with ANII (Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación) from Uruguay to facilitate the submission of joint proposals


Two research proposals have already been submitted
Two research proposals have already been submitted the cooperation?

ANPCyT PICT (has been approved and will be financed) CIMA-SHN-INIDEP-IFREMER

Study of the sedimentological processes in the MTZ and their relation to fisheries

Cruises to maintain the instruments operational

Oceanographic and biological observations in

Samborombón Bay

 Waves observations in the upper estuary

 One fellowship for a PhD student at CIMA

ECOS (submitted on April 15th) CIMA-INIDEP-IFREMER

Formation of human resources in satellite data

processing (INIDEP)

Installation of processing capabilities at INIDEP

Installation of a metrology lab at CIMA/DCAO

Further formation of human resources on numerical

modeling of sediments and biogeochemical processes


Umi ifaeci
UMI IFAECI… the cooperation?

CIMA, IFREMER, INIDEP, CERC, SHN, INA, IAFE and IMFIA are willing to pursue and enhance their cooperation in this synergic multidisciplinary research.

The UMI provides an excellent framework for this collaboration.

The motivations and aims of the research conducted by this group of people contribute to the UMI agenda.

Through the UMI it might be possible to interact with more actors (particularly from social sciences) in order to make our research reach the society and/or be a part of a larger project in which our research might be applied to concrete problems.


2 nd meeting of ifaeci umi 3351 buenos aires argentina april 25 th 2011

Thank you! the cooperation?

claudias@cima.fcen.uba.ar