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In Pursuit of CP Violation, and more. November 19, 2010, Seminar @ USTC. ⊳. Outline. I. Intro: Why are we here? II. The B Factories, the KM Nobel — and the Shortfall III. NTUHEP and its Exploits IV. A Prediction of sin 2 F B s a priori — from D A K p

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November 19, 2010, Seminar @ USTC


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    1. In Pursuit of CP Violation, and more November 19, 2010, Seminar @ USTC ⊳

    2. Outline I. Intro: Why are we here? II. The B Factories, the KM Nobel— and the Shortfall III. NTUHEP and its Exploits IV. A Prediction of sin2FBsa priori—from DAKp V. A Eureka Moment: Heavenly CPV !? VI. In Pursuit of CP Violation, and more

    3. I. Intro: Why are we here?

    4. Matter (?) Matter! Antimatter: 0%

    5. aryon symmetry niverse (1967) CPV & BAU: The Sakharov View • Baryon Number V iolation • CP Violation • Deviation from Equilibrium 10-9Matterleft! 14Byr Bang Why are we here? Us Pair Annihilation (  CMB g’s ) Equal Matter -Antimatter

    6. Sakharov Stimulated by ... Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 138 (1964) Discovery of CP Violation 1980 Nobel

    7. AntiParticle CPV i i QM CP Asymmetry needs both CP Conserv/Violating Phase CP Violation Primer Particle

    8. ui ► W Jm W– gVij ► dj Complex Dynamics: KM Sector of SM 1973 3 Generations Needed Wolfenstein parametrization 3x3 “Rotation” Unitary Need to be Nontrivial for CPV

    9. II. The B Factories, the KM Nobel, and the Shortfall

    10. BaBar Belle Differ only in PID DIRC vs Aerogel Cherenkov + ToF The Two B Factories Mt. Tsukuba PEP-II KEKB Tag Flavor

    11. Purpose of B Factory Measure sin2f1/b via TCPV in B → J/yKS How did this all come about ?

    12. V*2 td B0 T-dep. CPV Primer CPV in Mixing-Decay Interference CPV in Mixing-Decay Interference B A “Double Slit” M12 Ā A: Decay Amplitude B M12 : Mixing Amplitude CPV CP conserv. M12 B0 B0 B0Oscillations: eiDmt Interference of Two Types of Phases

    13. CP Asymmetry needs both CP Conserv/Violating Phase CP Violation Primer AntiParticle Process Particle Process d2 =Dmt f2 = -2argVtd TCPV:

    14. Measure : 1 Time-dependent CPV (TCPV) Asymmetry Carter-Sanda; Bigi-Sanda 1980-81 A = - C for BaBar :Mass Difference : CP Eigenvalue of final state f : state at time Dt from at Dt = 0 DCPV sin2f1/b CPV Phase in Mixing

    15. a big boost!

    16. BaBar Belle Tag Flavor Differ only in PID DIRC vs Aerogel Cherenkov + ToF The Two B Factories P. Oddone, 1987 Mt. Tsukuba Asymmetric Energy! PEP-II KEKB

    17. Belle B0 or B0 The $1B Question: Mixing-dep. CPV in B→J/yKS B decays in ~ picosecond One B Decay Tag Flavor Other B Decay CP Eigenstate Measure Both Decay Vertex J/yKS, p+p-, h’KS, fKS, KSp0 2001 ! Dz Dt

    18. 1964 b  d transitions consistent with SM KM Phase Confirmed by Experiment ~ 2001 Area ≠ 0

    19. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" CPViolation in SM 7 October 2008 B Factories (BaBar & Belle)

    20. CPVso far only observed in KM ... • Nontrivial CPV Phase • Nontrivial • All like-charge quark pairs nondegenerate, • Otherwise  Back to 2-gen. and CPV vanish. Jarlskog Invariant (1985)for CPV CPV iff J≠0

    21. WMAP Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV Small, but notToo small in SM is common (unique) area of triangle CPV Phase B.A.U. fromCPV in KM? The Lore. Too Small in SM Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) EW Phase Transition Temperature Masses too Small! ~ v.e.v.

    22. the Shortfall: KM misses BAU by at least 10-10... (u, d,) s, c, b quarks too light v.e.v. Why Repeat ? “Flavor Problem”

    23. III. NTUHEP and its Exploits

    24. The Two B Factories P. Oddone, 1987 Mt. Tsukuba Asymmetric Energy! PEP-II KEKB Inadvertantly lead to my return to Taiwan in 1992

    25. My CPV Internship a few remarks ...

    26. becoming semi-expert Invitation to Blois 1979 Bander-Silverman-Soni phase/mech.

    27. PSI B Project died 2 weeks after I arrived ...

    28. Objective ... a dramatic “Career Doubling” — founder/pusher of NTUHEP Built EFC Participate SVD2 I Intro • Sprinkling of Flavor/CPV—“Heaven on Earth” 12 II Entrance: Hardware 6 III Science Output from Taiwan Belle Rare Decays Direct CPV 4 TCPV5 Offshoots /Discovery 6 Prowess 4 IV Hints for New Physics: DS, ~ 20% of all Belle papers ! Observed ! TCPV could not have planned this D0h0/p+p-K+ Sf/VV pol. DA

    29. Strategy: Rare Decays Direct CPV Part of motivation for starting T-Belle is Density of B-phenomenologists — Hai-Yang Cheng (AS) Xiao-Gang He (NTU) (recruited as part of build-up Chao-Qiang Geng (NTHU) Hsiang-nan Li (AS) (built-up in the process Kwei-Chou Yang (CYCU) (trained thru process Chuan-Hung Chen (NCKU) ( ” ” Chung-Kiang Chua (AS) ( ” ” and myself ... Guess what, Our specialty IS — Rare Decays and Direct CP Violation Have theorists, want experimentalists !

    30. Objective ... a dramatic “Career Doubling” — founder/pusher of NTUHEP Built EFC Participate SVD2 I Intro • Sprinkling of Flavor/CPV—“Heaven on Earth” 12 II Entrance: Hardware 6 III Science Output from Taiwan Belle Rare Decays Direct CPV 4 TCPV5 Offshoots /Discovery 6 Prowess 4 IV Hints for New Physics: DS, ~ 20% of all Belle papers ! Observed ! TCPV could not have planned this D0h0/p+p-K+ Sf/VV pol. DA

    31. Crowning: Rare Decays Direct CPV hh modes became “ours” since 2003

    32. Kp, ppmodes: Main Mine for DCPV CPV Phase Interference Penguin Tree N.B. Would need also CP Conserving Phase Difference Recall dDp ~ 30, so dKp,dpp  0 likely

    33. Observation of Direct CPV in B Highlight of 2004 2005 Conf., “4.97s” 2005 Conf., “4.97s”

    34. DCPV TCPV CP Violation History Mixing(-dep.) Direct K: 1964 1999 B: 2001 2004

    35. IV.A Prediction of sin2FBsa priori—from DAKp

    36. Belle 2008 〈Nature〉: Simple Bean Count DA =AK+p0-AK+p-=+0.1640.037 4.4s +0.070.03vs-0.0940.020 b → s CPV Difference Is Large ! Exp. Established Belle + BaBar (+ CDF) And Not Predicted !

    37. Dispair Obligé Unexpected!

    38. ACP(B  K+p0 ) 275M BB New the Thread that Lead ... Sakai Kp0 : 728 53 ACP(Kp0) = 0.04  0.05  0.02 hint thatACP(K+p- ) ¹ACP(Kp0 ) ? (2.4s) [also seen by BaBar] d p0 Large EW penguin (Z0) ? New Physics ? _ d Planted by me, but I myself was shocked! B- b s K- Could it be Nondecoupling from t’ !? u u ICHEP 2004, Beijing

    39. My first B (and 4G :) paper WSH, Willey, Soni dimensions < nondecoupling

    40. d p0 _ d B- b s K- u u ,t’ DAKp= AK+p0-AK+p- ~ 15% and LO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen. WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 DAKp 12% vs 15% (data) ,t’ nondecoupling demonstration Large splitting of DCPV possible w/ 4G Corollary: Large TCPV in Bs!

    41. d p0 _ d B- b s K- u u t’ t’ • b → s Z-penguin: Nondecoupledt’ w/ - PQCD at LO - PQCD at NLO WSH, Li, Mishima, Nagashima, PRL 2007 ⇨ Can in principle generate DAkp Predict sin2FBs = -0.2 to -0.7 t’ WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL 2005 ≅ -0.04 in SM/3G -0.5 to -0.7 sin2FBd ≡ sin2f1 ≡ sin2b WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD, 2007

    42. sin2FBs~ -0.5 --0.7 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 arXiv:0712.2397 [hep.ex] arXiv:0802.2255 [hep.ex] 3.7s +0.16 -0.14 sin2FBs=-0.64 UTfit arXiv:0803.0659 [hep.ph] (already in 05) PRL’08 PRL’08 Further ICHEP’08 Updates (CDF/DØ/fitters): Strengthen ! Summer ’09 2.1 ~2.8s ± ? Incredible !!!

    43. sin2FBs~ -0.5 --0.7 sin2FBs ~ -0.33 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 WSH, Ma, arXiv:1004.2186 [hep-ph] (already in 05) sin2FBs ≡ sinfs≡ -sin2bs Also, Soni et al., arXiv:1002.0595 [hep-ph] Buras et al. arXiv:1002.2126 [hep-ph] Lenz et al., arXiv:1005.3505 [hep-ph] 4G Rehab. 4th generation “prediction” still robust, but needs LHCb to verify! Summer ’10 bs seems smaller comment: probably hadronic enhanced DGs

    44. 3G Looks like > 3s within 2011, if |sin2FBs| > 0.2!! spokesperson

    45. V. A Eureka Moment: Heavenly CPV!? Mind broadened by writing 《Nature》

    46. the 4G Leap One day late summer 2009, it occurred to me …

    47. Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV in SM is common (unique) area of triangle CPV Phase B.A.U. fromCPV in KM? WMAP Too Small in SM Why? Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) masses too small!

    48. Only fac. 30 in CPV per se B.A.U. fromCPV in KM? Enough CPV? WMAP Too Small in SM If shift by One Generation in SM4(need 3 generation in KM) Providence 1,2,3 WSH, arXiv:0803.1234 [hep/ph] CJP’09 2,3,4 ~ 10+15 Gain Nature would likely use this !? Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings (Masses) !

    49. Soaring to the Starry Heavens Enough CPV for BAU?

    50. VI. In Pursuit of CP Violation, and more 4−EWSB CPV 4 the Universe