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FGM. By: Sozan Fathi. FGM. World Health Organization  (WHO)  "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.". History.

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By: SozanFathi


World Health Organization (WHO) 

  • "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."
  • Girls in AncientEgypt 163 B.C
  •  Evidence from MUMMIES - both Type I and Type III - pharaonic circumcision
  • might be a cultural relic from pre-monotheistic African tribal religions
  • concentrated in Islamic areas
  • the Qur'an –Islamicholybook, femalegenital cutting is not commanded
  • "Circumcision is Sunnah for men and an honorable thing for women.“ Prophet Mohammad
  • England and the United States- the 19th century to "cure" insanity, masturbation, and nymphomania
  • Isaac Baker Brown (1812–1873)
  • Sigmund Freud "Elimination of the clitoris is a prerequisite for the development of femininity."
classifications of fgm
classificationsof FGM
  • TypeI : removal of the clitorial hood
  • Type II : Clitoridectomy
  • TypeIII: Infundibulation
  • TypeIV: miscellaneousacts
type iii
  • infibulation or pharaonic circumcision, is the removal of all external genitalia
  • Left is a hole - for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, which is created by inserting a twig or rock salt into the wound
  • legs are then tied together from hip to ankle for around 40 days to allow the wound to heal
  • The immobility causes the labial tissue to bond, forming a wall of flesh and skin across the entire vulva
  • pregnant woman who has not experienced FGM, the procedure is performed before she gives birth, because it is believed the baby may be stillborn if it touches her clitoris
when and how
  • girls a few days old to puberty
  • By a traditional circumciser
  • withoutanaesthesia
  • Withoutsterile equipment
  • using a knife, razor, scissors, cut glass, sharpened rocks, fingernails
  • suturing material such as agave or acaciathorns
  • 100–140 million women and girls around the world have experienced the procedure, including 92 million in Africa
  • practisedin 28 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa
  • in parts of Asia and the Middle East,
  • and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America, and Australasia
  • Somalia, Djibouti and Guinea 98%
  • Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gambia, Mali, Sudan and Sierra Leone 90%
  • Chad, Guina Bissau, Liberia, Kenya, Mauritania and Togo 50-70%
immediate complications
Immediate complications
  • painful
  • Bleeding – fatal (10%)
  • Hypovolemic shock -fatal
  • Acute urinary retention
  • Urinary infection 
  • Wound infection
  • Septicemia
  • Tetanus
  • Hepatitis
  • HIV  
late complications
Late complications
  •  formation of scars and keloids
  • damage to urethra and bladder with infections and incontinence
  • vaginal and pelvic infections
  • Dysmenorrhes
  • Dyspareunia
  • epidermoid cysts
  • chronic pain
  • Complete obstruction
reinfibulation and defibulation
Reinfibulation and defibulation
  • Women may request reinfibulation (RI)—the restoration of the infibulation—after birth, cuts are made around the vagina, then sutures are put in place to tighten it to the size of a pinhole
  • RI may also be carried out just before marriage, after divorce, or even in elderly women to prepare them for death
  • Defibulation, or deinfibulation, is a surgical technique to reverse the closure of the vaginal opening after a Type III infibulation, and consists of a vertical cut opening up normal access to the vagina, removal of scar tissue and labial repair and a new clitoris
  • Motherhood- not called"mother" when she has children if she is uncircumcised
  • a newborn child has elements of both sexes- cleansed by the removal of "male” body parts
  • unclean to handle food and water
  • raising a girl properly
  • a woman's genitals might continue to grow without FGM, until they dangle between her legs
  • ensures pre-marital virginity and inhibits extra-marital sex, because it reduces women's libido
  • clitoris are dangerous, capable of killing a man if his penis touches it, or a baby if the head comes into contact with it during birth,
  • Women fear the pain of re-opening the vagina, and are afraid of being discovered if it is opened illicitly
non practicing countries
  • Sweden passed legislation in 1982, the first Western country to do so
  • USA 1996
  • International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation United Nations, February 6 (2003)
  • Amnesty international
  • Unicef
  • who
  • And more