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SPEED LIMITS AND ECO-DRIVING Lower Speed Limits, Strict Enforcement & Stimulating Eco-Driving for Better Air Quality & Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Netherlands Care4Air, A Clearer Future Sheffield, September 21 st , 2005. Martin Kroon Ministry of the Environment The Netherlands

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martin kroon ministry of the environment the netherlands with support from henk stoelhorst rws

SPEED LIMITS AND ECO-DRIVINGLower Speed Limits, Strict Enforcement & Stimulating Eco-Driving for Better Air Quality & Reducing CO2 Emissions in the NetherlandsCare4Air, A Clearer FutureSheffield, September 21st, 2005

Martin Kroon

Ministry of the Environment

The Netherlands

[with support from Henk Stoelhorst, RWS]

slide2

NL air quality policiesthe Netherlands most polluted EU country due to50%-80% transboundary pollution from UK/B/F/D +dense population,cars/trucks/shipping volumesMany urban NO2/PM10 hotspot road sections10 high density highway hotspots Randstad900 M Euro air quality package 2005 – 2015National/local measures [traffic/infra/town planning, stricter Euro standards essential]Priority for diesel DPF subsidies /retrofit

history of current speed limits 1
History of current speed limits (1)
  • The NL highway network designed for a (safe) maximum speed of 120 km/hr [HDV: 80 km/hr]
  • Since the 1973 energy crisis the general speed limit on all motorways is 100 km/h [other: 80/50/30 km/hr]
  • Due to poor enforcement, faster cars and lower fuel prices, real speeds in 1986: V50=112 km/hr.
  • Left – right controversy over raising limit [1983-1987]
  • New speed limits since 1988 based on Safety + Env :
  • - 100 km/h near Randstad urban areas (17% net.)
  • - 120 km/h general speed limit (83% network)
  • In vehicle km: 30% (100 km/hr) : 70% (120 km/hr)
  • Policy target set at V50 = 106 km/hr [all network]
history of current speed limits 2
History of current speed limits (2)
  • Multiplied enforcement [fines up to 2 M/yr!] + tactics + communication campaigns: drop in real speeds after 1988; speeds stable at V50=109 km/hr = 2%- 4% CO2/NOx traffic emissions reduction, as of 2000 extra Euro 11 M /yr to enforcement [Climate Change Policy budget; funding < fines]
  • Since 2000 extra speed limit reduction discussed due to local air quality problems: 80 km/hr pilot project at Rotterdam-Overschie since 2002
  • 2004: after positive evaluation in-depth analysis of 9 top hotspots and strategic review of speed limits
slide5
80 km/hr speed limit at Motorway A13 near Rotterdam (Overschie) proves effective in all respects [2003 evaluation]
  • Air quality, noise, safety and flow benefits
  • Speed limit enforcement with electronic section control [av.speed check]:100%
  • Speeding offences: only 2%!
  • V50 dropped from <100 to <80 km/hr
  • Reduction NOx emissions: 15-25%
  • Reduction NO2 concentrations: 5-10% [5 mgr]
  • Reduction PM10 emissions: 25-35%
  • Reduction PM10 concentrations:<5% [3 mgr.]
  • Accident reduction: >50%!
  • Traffic calming [keep-your-lane] better flow
  • Local people and politicians happy
in depth analysis of 9 urban air quality hotspots 80 km hr most effective at 5 out of 9 locations
In-depth analysis of 9 urban air quality hotspots : 80 km/hr most effective at 5 out of 9 locations
  • No easy job [modelling, methodology, input!]
  • Effects differ per location due to congestion/traffic/background:
  • Reduction local NOx traffic emissions: 4 - 20 %
  • Reduction total local NO2 concentrations: 0,5 – 6 %
  • Noise reduction: circa 1 dB(A)
  • Accident reduction: 20 – 50 %
  • Throughput: more stable
  • Traffic flow/driver behaviour effect promising [ecodriving]
  • Communicating use of top gear at 80 km/hr needed for effects
  • Parliament 2004 decision: 80 km/hr with strict enforcement at:
  • A10 West Amsterdam, A20 Rotterdam, A12 Utrecht, A12 The Hague
analysis hotspots variation of effects

Location

Motorway section

Average reduction NO2 concentration

Average reduction road traffic NOx

emission

A10 West Amsterdam

3 - 6%

12 - 20%

A20 Rotterdam

1 - 3%

7 - 9%

A13 Overschie

4 - 6%

10 - 14%

A16 Dordrecht

0,5 - 2%

4 - 7%

A12 The Hague/Voorburg

2 - 3%

7 - 10%

A9 Badhoevedorp

1 - 2%

10 - 14%

A12 Utrecht 80/100

2 - 3%

6 - 10%

A16 Rotterdam

1 - 2%

7 - 9%

Analysis hotspots: variation of effects

[1] Dichtbij de weg (50 à 100 meter); gemiddeld wil zeggen over de voor ieder traject representatieve profielen waarvoor de berekeningen zijn gedaan

[1] Dichtbij de weg (50 à 100 meter); gemiddeld wil zeggen over de voor ieder traject representatieve profielen waarvoor de berekeningen zijn gedaan

dutch speed limits conclusions see www verkeershandhaving nl
Dutch speed limits – conclusions [see www.verkeershandhaving.nl]
  • NL highway speed limits based on road safety, network design [traffic flow], the environment and feasability of enforcement: 120,100, 80 km/hr
  • Speed reduction through section control is effective instrument for local air quality and noise, to combine with ecodriving
  • Strict and effective enforcement [plus full electronic processing] is feasible
  • Win-win effects overcome conflict of interests: reducing pollution, accidents, noise, congestion and costs through lower speeds [travel times still OK!]
vehicles and driver behaviour trends
VEHICLES AND DRIVER BEHAVIOUR TRENDS
  • VEHICLE TRENDS [cars]
  • Constant upgrading in safety, weight, power and performance
  • Average new car: 1700 cc, 100 HP, 200 km/hr, 1200 kg [NL]
  • Electr. engine man. + 3way cat.= low pollution in testcycle
  • DRIVER BEHAVIOUR TRENDS=driver<>vehicle interaction
  • Old fashioned driving style dominant [low gears/high RPM]
  • Aggression, fun [“Top Gear”!], self expression, risk compensation
  • Speed and vehicle dynamics dominant risk/pollution factors
  • More driver self-restraint needed than ever before [hp/km/acc.]
  • POLLUTION TRENDS [ road traffic]
  • Traffic [diesel!] emissions dominate local hotspots
  • Hard measures [tech.] promising, soft measures [behav.] ready
fuel economy co2 nox reduction potential
Fuel economy/CO2/NOx reduction potential

ECO-DRIVING advanced training

  • Up to 25% individual fuel savings potential
  • 5-10% savings in fleet owner practice

ECO-DRIVING.... HOW?

Less engine speed: gear change at 2000 – 2500 RPM [cars, LDV]

Less vehicle dynamics (acceleration/ deceleration/ speeding/ overtaking/ aggression: anticipation)

less idling / cold start short trips, tyre pressure +10%

CAPACITY >>Training, communication, in-car devices(on-board computer, cruise control, RPM, MDD, GSI)

ECCP: EU 15 reduction estimates:

10% fuel costs = 25 billion litres / Euro = >50 Mton CO2

specific power fuel efficiency engine map turbocharged petrol source tno
Specific power/fuel efficiency engine map [turbocharged-petrol] source: TNO
fuel economy in gears petrol 1 8 l
Fuel economy in gears [petrol 1,8 l.]

18

1th gear

16

14

2nd gear

3rd gear

12

l/100 km

10

287*

8

4th gear

5th gear

6

382*

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

km/h

gear change pattern eco driving vs the old way
Gear change pattern eco-driving vs. the old way

5th

4th

3rd

120

gears

100

2nd

80

km/h

60

1st

40

20

0

revs/min

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

slide15

How Gear Shifting Affects Fuel Consumption

Seat Ibiza 1,4 l. 55 kW at 50 km/hr:in 2nd gear = 3600 RPM = 8 km/lin 3rd gear = 2600 RPM = 12 km/lin 4th gear = 1900 RPM = 17 km/lin 5th gear = 1400 RPM = 21 km/l

communicating eco driving today

Communicating eco-driving today!!

“You can save 10% - 25% fuel today when you:”

Keep your engine speeds between 1200 – 3000 RPM

Change gears (up) at 2000 – 2500 RPM [“80 in 5!”]

Avoid strong accelerations and full throttle

Use your RPM meter / board computer / cruise control

Live up to (highway) speed limits or max.120 km/hr

Add 10% to standard tyre pressure

Less use of airco [= >10% f.c.] or set >21°C.

Use your bike for short trips [cold start = 300% f.c.]

eco driving program implementation
ECO-DRIVING program implementation
  • Eco-driving part of CO2 / hotspot policy
  • Eco-driving part of road safety/speed limit policies
  • ECO-DRIVING programming and networking
  • PARTNERS: business organisations and institutions [car business, HDV transport, fuels, driver training, insurance, car lobby, media, lease/fleet owners, NGO’s, local govts., road safety lobby, consumer org. ]
  • www.ecodrive.org + www.hetnieuwerijden.nl priority:
    • Training of professional drivers [national, corporate]
    • Driving licenses and training the trainers [national, EU]
    • Awareness raising and mass media communication [id.]
    • Fuel saving in-car devices [EU + car industry]
    • Tyre pressure, speed limit enforcement [EU/ACEA, nat.]