program overview n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Program Overview PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Program Overview

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 209

Program Overview - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

Program Overview. Project Management Effectiveness PART 2. 003 - 1. Module 2.4 Project Planning. Project Management Disciplines Project Management Effectiveness. 024 - 2. Disciplines of project management. GO/NO-GO. Product. Initiation Phase. Execution Phase. Closing Phase. Time.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Program Overview


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Program Overview Project Management Effectiveness PART 2 003 - 1

    2. Module 2.4Project Planning Project Management Disciplines Project Management Effectiveness 024 - 2

    3. Disciplines of project management GO/NO-GO Product Initiation Phase Execution Phase Closing Phase Time Change management Change management FEASIBILITY & DEFINITION ESTIMATION RISK MANAGEMENT PLANNING TEAM MANAGEMENT MONITORING & REPORTING CLOSING 024 - 3

    4. Module objectives At the end of this module, you will be able to: Analyze the process of a project and define the tasks to be performed to reach successful project completion Organize the tasks and optimize the schedule on a time/effort perspective Produce the project plan 024 - 4

    5. Module outlineKey steps in project planning • Describe the project requirements • Define the process, the tasks and their relationship • Define resources • Define the schedule What How Who When 024 - 5

    6. Define “what” you want to reach By having a clear vision of the desired end result you will have a higher probability of reaching it Product 024 - 6

    7. Take the time to define the project Key to success is to define clearly the desired result (预期结果)that the overall project should achieve. Don’t rush into a project; take the time to determine what needs to be accomplished and how to do it. “If I had eight hours to cut down a tree I would spend six hours sharpening the saw”(磨刀不误砍材工) A. Lincoln 024 - 7

    8. Module outlineKey steps in project planning • Describe the project requirements • Define the process, the tasks and their relationship • Define resources • Define the schedule What How Who When 024 - 8

    9. Module outlineDefine “how” Describe the project requirements Define the process, the tasks and their relationship Define the process  process flow Define the tasks  WBS Define tasks relationship  activity network Define the effort needed Define resources Define the schedule What How Who When 024 - 9

    10. Define the process Process definition a set of linked activities, decisions or events that flow within or between functions, transforming inputs into outputs process inputs outputs 024 - 10

    11. The process flow (project flowchart) Purpose: To represent in a graphical way the flow of the specific inputs and the relationship between activities and functions to reach the target 024 - 11

    12. The project flowchart The project flowchart shows overall picture of the project from inputs to outputs Only main activities, milestones and deliverables are represented It shows the specific roles played by ALL the different functions 024 - 12

    13. Process flow examples Plan a trip info Get Visa Compare costs Choose Operator & Date Compare costs Compare programs Get Vaccination info Trip starts! Compare programs Prepare suitcase Choose Operator & Date Get Visa Get Vaccination Prepare suitcase Trip starts! 024 - 13

    14. How to build a flowchart? Gather all the information about the process Draw individual boxes for each main activity needed to achieve the target Draw the flow either horizontally or vertically Connect the boxes with arrows for each interface Ensure all players/functions are represented Be careful some contributors to the project can be outside the project team or subcontractors! 024 - 14

    15. Standard set of symbols for flow charting Sequence of activities Activity, Operation or Task Decision point, Test Document Database Terminator, End result 024 - 15

    16. Which sense to adopt? To draw the process you can - go from the initial inputs towards the final product or - start from the final product and then go backwards. Starting from first task and working forwards is the way the work gets done. BUT we will tend to describe ALL the activities we do to reach the target. One can easily get lost in the various activitiesof the projectand lose the focus on the target Starting from last task and working backwards can be more difficult BUT we will describe the activities needed to reach the target it could help to stick to only the essential activities …. up to you to choose your way! 024 - 16

    17. Module outlineDefine “how” Describe the project requirements Define the process, the tasks and their relationship Define the process  process flow Define the tasks  WBS Define tasks relationship  activity network Define the effort needed Define resources Define the schedule prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy What How Who When 024 - 17

    18. Define the Work Breakdown Structure prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info Go to doctor Choose clothes Choose shoes Go to embassy Purpose: To show the tasks that must be accomplished to achieve successful project completion organized into related areas. 024 - 18

    19. What are tasks and milestones? Task: a definable package of work required to complete a project A task should include only related work elements A task subdivides the work of a project into units that can be sequenced, assigned, scheduled, communicated and monitored Milestone: a significant event in a project The milestone represents usually the completion of some major deliverables It clearly marks a transition in phase in the project or the completion of an important set of tasks or of a subproject. It is often used also to represent “external interfaces”: mutual commitments or important inputs or outputs of the project 024 - 19

    20. The Work Breakdown Structure(工作解构表) The Work Breakdown Structure is a hierarchical chart(层次结果图) used to organize the tasks of a project into related areas It shows the breakdown of a project either by its major sub products (WBS) or by functions (OBS组织解构表) depending on the visibility needed Each of these major components are then subdivided into the tasks necessary to reach successful project completion prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy 024 - 20

    21. WBS examples prepare trip info prepare trip prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes Visa Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase shoes embassy Get info Compare costs Compare programs Go to doctor Choose clothes Get info Go to embassy Vaccination Go to embassy Choose shoes Choose Operator & date Go to doctor Suitcase Choose clothes Choose shoes Get Visa Get Vaccination Prepare suitcase Trip starts! WBS can be represented as: • a task outline like a book index • a tree structure 024 - 21

    22. OBS example prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy house building masons carpenters electricians painters plumbers build roof structure build foundations prepare tubes plaster walls lay pipes build outside walls build roof lay cables paint internal walls fix sanitary installations build internal walls put windows fix plugs & switches paint external walls fix doors 024 - 22

    23. How to build a WBS? Start with the end objective Split by products or by functions depending on the visibility you need to supply Subdivide each major project deliverable into tasks or work-packages Breakdown level depends on the requirements of the project at the time and it should be enough to support development of project activities Be careful… final element must be understandable! prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy 024 - 23

    24. Coding in a WBS A code can be assigned to each element in WBS to: Provide a unique identification for each task Indicate dependence between tasks. The WBS code looks like 01.06.02.... or A1.B5.C3… with each section representing each level which is broken down. The code allows fast and simple filtering for planning, tracking, and monitoring prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy 024 - 24

    25. Some tips… TIPS: Reach the “adequate” detail level to be able to take care of all the aspects of the project but without getting lost Project team members or functions can develop their own WBS with appropriate level of details to be then consolidated in the main project WBS Think ahead of the filtering you might need later on when adopting an appropriate coding strategy prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy 024 - 25

    26. … and a recommendation When you use the Process Flowchart or the Work Breakdown Structure, each task should generate some recognisable and measurable ‘work product’: specifications, designs, manuals code, hardware, product release. test reports, quality records. plans, reports, minutes. prepare trip value Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes an added shoes embassy introduce should task Each Keep the focus on WHAT you want to reach not on the activities 024 - 26

    27. The Work Breakdown StructureSummary It is a basic project diagram that describes all the work that must be done to complete the project WBS gives a structured view of the project where the overall project objective is subdivided into logical segments and the associated tasks. WBS shows only the hierarchical relationships of the tasks WBS/OBS can be cascaded at the different levels of the organization and the tasks can then be further subdivided prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy 024 - 27

    28. What is the right level of detail? Key issue in project planning There are no established rules for that It depends on the project goals and scope and on the target of the analysis you are doing: For a process flow it is different to that of a WBS For a manager it is different to that for a team member Your experience and the project context will shape your approach 024 - 28

    29. Tips… TIPS: • As a general rule the smallest of subtasks that you would list in the WBS would be the smallest unit that you as a project manager need to keep track of (1) • There are three questions to consider when breaking tasks into smaller units: • Is the task easier to assign? • Is the task easier to estimate? • Is the task easier to track? If the answer is “NO” to all three, then it’s probably not worth doing it (2) Ref: (1) J.Davidson – 10 min. guide to Project Management (2) S.&K. Baker – The Complete Idiot ‘s Guide to Project Management 024 - 29

    30. Don’t adopt micromanagement style Let people be responsible for the detail of their work. Don’t substitute for them, keep the focus on the target An effective project manager: Shares responsibilities with others and keeps focused on the big picture. Empowers team members to effectively execute their responsibilities Modulates his/her help and interventions according to the experience of the team members Micromanagement takes away ownership and demotivates the team members 024 - 30

    31. Module outlineDefine “how” Describe the project requirements Define the process, the tasks and their relationship Define the process  process flow Define the tasks  WBS Define tasks relationship  activity network Define the effort needed Define resources Define the schedule prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy What How Who When 024 - 31

    32. Define the task relationship Purpose: To show project activities organized according to their sequence in time and to the logical relationships between them (dependencies). 024 - 32

    33. The activity network The tasks are linked together according to their relationships (network analysis). When one element of the chart is modified, the rest of the chart is modified according to the established links. It can be shown as a detailed flowchart, or using the Gantt chart or PERT chart 024 - 33

    34. Example of representation of an activity network on a Gantt chart 024 - 34

    35. Example of representation of an activity network on a PERT chart 024 - 35

    36. How to build an activity network Start with a structured list of tasks and milestones (WBS) Define the relationships between each task and its predecessors Connect dependent tasks by lines with the arrow showing the sense of the dependence One task may depend on the completion of multiple tasks or milestones 024 - 36

    37. Dependencies(相关性) Connect tasks according to technical constraints and precedence links By setting the right dependencies, every time you make a change to the plan, the software will update the plan accordingly Dependencies are as important as the complete list of tasks BUT … the more the tasks are linked by dependencies, the higher the need to carefully formalize them! 024 - 37

    38. Predecessor relationship Predecessor task: a task that comes before another one and sets a constraint on the other one Types of dependencies linking a task to its predecessor(s): Finish-to-start (FS) Start-to-finish (SF) Start-to-start (SS) Finish-to-finish (FF) (Rarely used) Check the correctness of the dependencies throughout the lifetime of the project because sometimes the task relationship can change! 024 - 38

    39. Predecessor relationship:adding a fixed delay Adding a delay (Lag) : If positive  the lag is added to the relation between the tasks: ex. T2 = T1FS+2w = T2 starts 2 weeks after T1 is finished If negative  the lag is subtracted to the relation between the tasks: ex. T2 = T1FS-2 w = T2 starts 2 weeks earlier than T1 is finished 2w 2w 024 - 39

    40. The activity networkSummary The activity network is the logical representation of the tasks in a project It shows how all the tasks in a project fit together It gives the sequencing relationship between various parts of the project 024 - 40

    41. Module outlineDefine “how” Describe the project requirements Define the process, the tasks and their relationship Define the process  process flow Define the tasks  WBS Define tasks relationship  activity network Define the effort needed Define resources Define the schedule prepare trip Get visa Get vaccination Prepare suitcase Get info doctor clothes shoes embassy What How Who When 024 - 41

    42. Work load estimation For work to be done by people most of the tasks are “effort driven” The effort (workload) is estimated and it is expressed in men x time (men x day, men.week, men.month) Workload = resources x time Estimate Assign Calculate duration BUT … Some tasks are “duration driven” : work performed by a machine, duration of a meeting, life tests, … 024 - 42

    43. Module outlineKey steps in project planning What • Describe the project requirements • Define the process, the tasks and their relationship • Define resources • Define the schedule How Who When 024 - 43

    44. Resource planning Purpose: To be able to determine the resources needed to bring a project to completion (type, quantity, skills and for when) and to foresee eventual resource utilization conflicts. 024 - 44

    45. Resource definition Define the type of resource and the skills needed for each task Identification of the resource: Name (& ID number) Personal calendar (holidays, other engagements) Availability (full time, part time) Assignment (% of time that the resource will work on the project) Cost by hour All these data should be recorded in the resource file … and consider the level of experience! 024 - 45

    46. Resource assignment Assign one or more resource to each task The assignment should be done as a percentage of time. When you do not have yet visibility on all the resources, define resource “not assigned”skill driven to be able to see which type of resources the project still needs and for when Don’t allocate the resources on a day-by-day basis otherwise when the task will change, the allocation must be changed manually 024 - 46

    47. Consider real performances … Take into account the real performance of the person in charge of the task. If people are not experienced allow time to learn (lower assignment level) Check for bottlenecks (specific skills, or equipments) • Remember that, even dedicated to a task, a person always uses some time for meetings, other commitments,… so allocate him/her between 60 and 80% max to the task (depending on experience, performance,…) 024 - 47

    48. Tom 60% Resource leveling The resource leveling is done to avoid over allocation of resources. Tom 60% Tom 60% Tom 60% Tom 60% leveling 1) 2) 3) T1 T2 Task 1 Task 2 Tom 30% T1 T2 Tom 30% T1 T2 Anna 60% Hypothesis : Tom and Anna have same experience and, in the considered period, have the same involvement in the project. 024 - 48

    49. Some tips… TIPS: Resources are often shared between several projects: it is better that the resources and calendars are managed centrally The resource leveling can be done automatically by the SW but be aware of the many defaults and assumptions that the SW does  In many cases better do it manually If the Gantt is composed of many tasks of short duration, the leveling could become difficult 024 - 49

    50. ResourcesSummary Resources needs to be identified and assigned to each task Personal calendars and project calendar need to be defined The real performance of the people in charge of the task must be considered Tasks can be reorganized or duration modified according to resource availability 024 - 50