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CITRIC ACID

CITRIC ACID

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CITRIC ACID

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  1. CITRIC ACID

  2. CITRIC ACID OH O ║ O ║ OH– C – CH2 – C – CH2 – C – OH O ║ HO – C 2 – hydroxy – 1,2,3 – propanetricarboxylic acid

  3. CARBOXYLIC ACID

  4. DEFINITION • Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a CARBOXYL GROUP, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H.

  5. SYNTHETIC

  6. OXIDATION of ALDEHYDE gen. formula K2Cr2O7 1ᵒ Alcohol -----→ ALDEHYDE + H2O KMnO4 (O) CARBOXYLIC ACID

  7. EXAMPLE ETHANAL O ║ K2Cr2O7 CH3 – CH2 – OH CH3 – C – H + H2O (O) (O) CH3 – C – OH O ║ ETHANOIC ACID

  8. NATURAL

  9. FORMIC ACID O ║ H – C – OH methanoic acid

  10. MALONIC/MALIC ACID O ║ O ║ HO – C – CH2 – C – OH propanedioic acid

  11. RHUBARB

  12. OXALIC ACID O ║ O ║ HO – C – C – OH ethanedioic acid

  13. ARACHIDIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)18 – C – OH ICOSANOIC acid

  14. CITRIC ACID OH O ║ O ║ OH– C – CH2 – C – CH2 – C – OH O ║ HO – C 2 – hydroxy – 1,2,3 – propanetricarboxylic acid

  15. OLEIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)7 – CH=CH – (CH2)7 – C – OH OLIVES

  16. View patricia pen's map Taken in (See more photos here) The leaves are such a rich shiny green they begged me to take a picture.  LAUREL LEAVES

  17. LAURIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)10 – C – OH DODECANOIC acid

  18. Human & Animal FATS

  19. STEARIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)16 – C – OH OCTADECANOIC acid

  20. USES

  21. ACETIC ACID O ║ CH3 – C – OH ethanoic acid

  22. LACTIC ACID O ║ CH3 – CH – C – OH OH 2 - hydroxypropanoic acid

  23. BUTYRIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)2 – C – OH butanoic acid

  24. PALMITIC ACID O ║ CH3 – (CH2)14 – C – OH hexadecanoic acid

  25. NOMENCLATURE

  26. IUPAC RULES • A carboxylic acid is named in the IUPAC system by replacing the –e of the alkane name by Functional group suffix = -oic acid. • The carboxyl carbon is designated as number # 1, and other substituents are located and named accordingly. • However, common names derived from their natural source are used extensively for most carboxylic acid, and the greek letters alpha, beta, gamma and delta are used to show the location of side groups.

  27. EXAMPLES

  28. Give the IUPAC & COMMON name of D’ Given Structure 09 10 08 07 06 04 00 05 02 03 01 O ║ CH3 – (CH2)4 – C – OH IUPAC HEXANOIC ACID CAPROIC ACID COMMON

  29. Give the IUPAC & COMMON name of D’ Given Structure 09 10 08 07 06 04 05 00 03 01 02 O ║ OH CH3 – (CH2)2 – C – C – OH OH IUPAC 2,2 dihydroxypentanoic ACID COMMON α,α - dihydroxyvalericACID

  30. Give D’ IUPAC name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 10 09 08 04 00 03 02 06 07 05 01 O ║ O ║ CH2 – CH3 HO – C – CH – C – CH – CH3 NO2 IUPAC 4 – methyl – 2 – nitro – 3 – oxohexanoic ACID

  31. 10 09 Give D’ COMMON name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 08 04 00 03 02 06 07 05 01 HO CH3 O ║ O ║ CH3 – (CH2)2 – C – CH – C – (CH2)2 – C – OH NO2 COMMON NAME ε – hydroxy – δ – methyl – ε – nitro – γ – oxopelargonic acid

  32. 10 09 08 04 Give D’ IUPAC name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 00 03 02 06 07 05 01 CH3 – CH2 CH2 – CH3 CH3 – (CH2)2 – C – CH2 – C – CH2 – CH3 HO– C – 2HC (CH2)2– CH3 O ║ IUPAC NAME 3,5,5 – triethyl – 3 – propyloctanoic acid

  33. What if there’s a DOUBLE or TRIPLE bond in a structure? EXAMPLES O ║ CH3 – C ≡ C – C – OH 2 – butynecarboxylic acid O ║ C – OH 3 – cyclohexenecarboxylic acid

  34. 10 09 Give D’ IUPAC name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 08 04 05 07 06 03 00 02 01 CH2– CH3 O ║ HO – C – CH – CH2 – C ≡ C – C – CH3 CH3 – (CH2)2 6 – ethyl – 6 – methyl – 2 – phenyl – 4 – nonynecarboxylic acid

  35. 10 09 08 04 Give D’ IUPAC name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 07 06 05 03 02 00 01 O ║ C – OH CH2 HO 5 – benzyl – 4 – cyclohexyl – 3 – hydroxy – 2 – cyclohexene carboxylic acid

  36. 10 09 08 04 Give D’ IUPAC name of D’ CARBOXYLIC structure 07 06 05 03 02 00 01 O ║ C – OH CH3 – (CH2)4 4 – pentyl – 2 – cyclopentynecarboxylic acid