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  1. BNL: Status and Future Plans in Nuclear & Particle Physics Sam Aronson, BNL High Energy & Nuclear Physics September 28, 2005

  2. The present • BNL’s current activities in nuclear and particle physics • RHIC/AGS • Heavy ion & spin physics, NASA space radiation • LEGS @ NSLS • ATLAS @ CERN • MINOS • D-Zero • Accelerator R&D – ATF and Muon Collaboration • Nuclear & High Energy Theory • RIKEN Center, Lattice gauge computing, QCDOC @ Fermilab ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  3. RHIC performance • Science: landmark discoveries, major impact • Operations: 5 years of exceeding expectations • New state of matter • Opaque to strongly interacting particles • Transparent to photons and leptons • A nearly perfect liquid of quarks and gluons (i.e., a strongly-coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma) • Appears so have its origin in a universal hadronic state called the Color Glass Condensate ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  4. The future • BNL’s future NPP program builds on current program + BNL core strengths [accelerator physics, s.c. magnet R&D, instrumentation, NPP research] • RHIC II & eRHIC NP • ATLAS Research HEP • Including heavy ions NP • Int’l Linear Collider HEP • Neutrino oscillations NP & HEP • LSST HEP ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  5. Current events • RSVP was terminated last month • Near- and mid-term future of accelerator- based HEP (BNL and US) does not look bright • Performing these compelling Beyond-the-Standard-Model measurements (and others) does not look likely • BNL’s significant effort on RSVP now being redirected to other priority research efforts • RHIC no longer in immediate jeopardy • Budget-driven review of NP facilities: RHIC did well • Funds for FY’06 restored by Congress [pre-Katrina] ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  6. RHIC II The future of NP at BNL:RHIC  “QCD Lab” • Discoveries at RHIC  Compelling QCD questions: • The nature of confinement • The structure of quark-gluon matter above TC • The low-x and spin structure of hadronic matter • Compelling questions  Facilityevolution • 10-fold increase in luminosity (to 40 x design) • e-cooling @ full energy • New detector capabilities • 50-fold increase in computing power applied to finite T lattice QCD: • e-A and polarized e-p collisions, new detector: QCDOC eRHIC ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  7. RHIC – achieved parameters [best store or week] *Blue ring avg. pol. 49%, Yellow ring avg. pol. 44% RHIC accelerated polarized protons to Ebeam = 210 GeV @ 30% pol. This year L storeavg.goals (prior to e-cooling): Au-Au = 81026, p-p = 651030, @ 70% pol. ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  8. rf Gun Linac RHIC II Luminosities with e-Cooling See talk by S. Ozaki tomorrow Gold beam Cooling Solenoid (~ 30 m, ~ 1 T) Buncher Cavity Debuncher Cavity e-Beam Dump Gold collisions (100 GeV/n x 100 GeV/n): w/o e-cooling with e-cooling Emittance (95%) pmm 15  40 15  3 Beta function at IR [m] 1.0 1.0  0.5 Number of bunches 112 112 Bunch population [109] 1 1  0.3 Beam-beam parameter per IR 0.0016 0.004 Peak luminosity [1026 cm-2 s-1] 32 90 Average luminosity [1026 cm-2 s-1] 8 70 demonstrated by JLab for IR FEL (50 MeV, 5 mA) ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  9. eRHIC at BNL The compelling questions for eRHIC: • What is the nature of confinement and of hadronization in nuclei (compared to nucleons)? • What is the structure of the saturated gluon state at low x in hadrons? • What is the role of spin in DIS in nucleons and nuclei? Need a precision tool to probe these fundamental and universal aspects of QCD: eRHIC • Collide High energy & intensity polarized e (or e+) with A, p • A new detector for e-p & e-A physics Ee = 10 GeV (~5-10 GeV) TO BE BUILT Ep = 250 GeV (~50-250 GeV) EXISTS EA = 100 GeV/A (~ 10-100 GeV/A) EXISTS ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  10. eRHIC design concepts Standard ring-ring design Alternative linac-ring design simpler IR design multiple IRs possible Ee ~ 20 GeV possible higher luminosity possible more expensive EBIS: electron beam ion source starts construction in FY2006 replaces Tandems operational advantages ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  11. RHIC priorities and challenges • e-cooling – enabling technology for the RHIC luminosity upgrade and for eRHIC • R&D getting funding from a variety of sources • New opportunities to make it cheaper and simpler • Some major hurdles for QCD Lab • Convince the NP community of the science case • NSAC Long Range Plan • Establish priority relative to other future NP facilities • Construction & operation must be affordable ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  12. The future of HEP @ BNL1. ATLAS • Construction • ATLAS Detector & basic software is on track for completion to meet the CERN schedule – CD-4A 9/30/05 • ATLAS Research Program & Physics Analysis Support Center • U.S. scientists must have the capability to perform physics analysis of ATLAS data competitively • Exciting physics could emerge in the 1st year of operation SUSY search with dileptons ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  13. ATLAS Research Program & Physics Analysis Support Center • Research program managed from BNL • Physics analysis support distributed between BNL, ANL, LBL • Anchored at BNL (US-ATLAS Tier I computing facility) ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  14. 2. International Linear Collider • Ongoing effort on accelerator R&D in the Superconducting Magnet Division • Direct wind technology  final focus system • Supported in part by BNL director’s funds • Planning on increased support from ILC R&D • Detector R&D • Traditional strengths (calorimetry, FEE, etc.) • Effort from generic detector R&D + RSVP  ILC ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  15. 3. Neutrinos • Reactor q13 experiment under consideration • BNL chemistry group already working on Gd-LS • Physics group would be added • Currently working in MINOS, planning for long term • Effort from RSVP groups ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  16. Very Long BaselineNeutrino Oscillations • ~ 1 MW proton driver  n super beam •  400 kTon detector in DUSEL • Significant progress in detector performance simulations • Beam & detector R&D proposals in preparation • Discussions with Fermilab ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  17. LSST • Dark Energy & Dark Matter • “The committee supports the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project, which has significant promise for shedding light on dark energy.”* • BNL will explore the nature of Dark Energy via weak gravitational lensing • Wide, deep, frequent, multi-band imaging of the entire visible sky  3D map of the visible sky to redshift z  1 • BNL is building a group to do this science *“Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos” ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  18. LSST Project • Ground-based telescope • 8.4m diameter f/1, 8.6 field of view • DOE institutions propose to deliver the Camera • BNL, Harvard, Illinois, LLNL, SLAC, UCSC, others • BNL would deliver the Focal Plane Array Sensors • 3 Gigapixel CCD or CMOS array • BNL expertise in large Si detectors & low-noise electronics • First light 2012-2013 ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  19. Recap: BNL plan for Nuclear and Particle Physics • RHIC complex: the QCD Laboratory • Probes: p-p, p-A, A-A, e-p and e-A • LGC with QCDOC and successors • ATLAS • US analysis support effort centered at BNL • Accelerator R&D • ILC superconducting magnet R&D and detector R&D • ATF and Muon collaboration (no time to discuss here) • Neutrinos • Reactor-based measurement of q13 • VLB oscillations  CP violation [& proton decay] • LSST – The nature of Dark Energy ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson

  20. Summary • The science is compelling, plays to BNL’s technical strengths and aligns well with national priorities • Hurdles on all time scales • Budgets and priorities • National panels, advisory groups, task forces • RHIC, ATLAS are key – rest of the vision will come into focus over the next year ICFA Seminar, Daegu, Korea 2005 S. Aronson