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Measurements in Chemistry. Measurements and Calculations. Steps in the Scientific Method. 1. Observations - quantitative - qualitative 2. Formulating hypotheses - possible explanation for the observation 3. Performing experiments - gathering new information to decide

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Measurements in chemistry
Measurements in Chemistry

Measurements

and

Calculations


Steps in the scientific method
Steps in the Scientific Method

  • 1. Observations

  • - quantitative

  • - qualitative

  • 2. Formulating hypotheses

  • - possible explanation for the observation

  • 3. Performing experiments

  • - gathering new information to decide

    whether the hypothesis is valid


Outcomes over the long term
Outcomes Over the Long-Term

  • Theory (Model)

  • - A set of tested hypotheses that give an

    overall explanation of some natural phenomenon.

  • Natural Law

  • - The same observation applies to many

    different systems

  • - Example - Law of Conservation of Mass


Law vs theory
Law vs. Theory

  • A law summarizes what happens

  • A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happens.


Nature of measurement
Nature of Measurement

Measurement - quantitative observation

consisting of 2 parts

  • Part 1 - number

  • Part 2 - scale (unit)

  • Examples:

  • 20grams

  • 6.63 x 10-34Joule seconds


The fundamental si units le syst me international si
The Fundamental SI Units(le Système International, SI)



Si prefixes common to chemistry
SI PrefixesCommon to Chemistry


Uncertainty in measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement

  • A digit that must be estimated is called uncertain. A measurement always has some degree of uncertainty.


Why is there uncertainty
Why Is there Uncertainty?

  • Measurements are performed with instruments

  • No instrument can read to an infinite number of decimal places

Which of these balances has the greatest uncertainty in measurement?


Precision and accuracy
Precision and Accuracy

  • Accuracyrefers to the agreement of a particular value with the truevalue.

  • Precisionrefers to the degree of agreement among several measurements made in the same manner.

Precise but not accurate

Precise AND accurate

Neither accurate nor precise


Types of error
Types of Error

  • Random Error(Indeterminate Error) - measurement has an equal probability of being high or low.

  • Systematic Error(Determinate Error) - Occurs in the same directioneach time (high or low), often resulting from poor technique or incorrect calibration.


Rules for counting significant figures details
Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details

  • Nonzero integersalways count as significant figures.

  • 3456has

  • 4sig figs.


Rules for counting significant figures details1
Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details

  • Zeros

  • -Leading zeros do not count as

    significant figures.

  • 0.0486 has

  • 3 sig figs.


Rules for counting significant figures details2
Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details

  • Zeros

  • -Captive zeros always count as

    significant figures.

  • 16.07 has

  • 4 sig figs.


Rules for counting significant figures details3
Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details

  • Zeros

  • Trailing zerosare significant only if the number contains a decimal point.

  • 9.300 has

  • 4 sig figs.


Rules for counting significant figures details4
Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Details

  • Exact numbershave an infinite number of significant figures.

  • 1 inch = 2.54cm, exactly


Sig fig practice 1
Sig Fig Practice #1

How many significant figures in each of the following?

1.0070 m 

5 sig figs

17.10 kg 

4 sig figs

100,890 L 

5 sig figs

3.29 x 103 s 

3 sig figs

0.0054 cm 

2 sig figs

3,200,000 

2 sig figs


Rules for significant figures in mathematical operations
Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations

  • Multiplication and Division:# sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation.

  • 6.38 x 2.0 =

  • 12.76 13 (2 sig figs)


Sig fig practice 2
Sig Fig Practice #2

Calculation

Calculator says:

Answer

22.68 m2

3.24 m x 7.0 m

23 m2

100.0 g ÷ 23.7 cm3

4.22 g/cm3

4.219409283 g/cm3

0.02 cm x 2.371 cm

0.05 cm2

0.04742 cm2

710 m ÷ 3.0 s

236.6666667 m/s

240 m/s

5870 lb·ft

1818.2 lb x 3.23 ft

5872.786 lb·ft

2.9561 g/mL

2.96 g/mL

1.030 g ÷ 2.87 mL


Rules for significant figures in mathematical operations1
Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations

  • Addition and Subtraction: The number of decimal places in the result equals the number of decimal places in the least precise measurement.

  • 6.8 + 11.934 =

  • 18.734  18.7 (3 sig figs)


Sig fig practice 3
Sig Fig Practice #3

Calculation

Calculator says:

Answer

10.24 m

3.24 m + 7.0 m

10.2 m

100.0 g - 23.73 g

76.3 g

76.27 g

0.02 cm + 2.371 cm

2.39 cm

2.391 cm

713.1 L - 3.872 L

709.228 L

709.2 L

1821.6 lb

1818.2 lb + 3.37 lb

1821.57 lb

0.160 mL

0.16 mL

2.030 mL - 1.870 mL


Scientific Notation

In science, we deal with some very LARGE numbers:

1 mole = 602000000000000000000000

In science, we deal with some very SMALL numbers:

Mass of an electron =

0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg


Imagine the difficulty of calculating the mass of 1 mole of electrons!

0.000000000000000000000000000000091 kg

x 602000000000000000000000

???????????????????????????????????


Scientific Notation: electrons!

A method of representing very large or very small numbers in the form:

M x 10n

  • M is a number between 1 and 10

  • n is an integer


. electrons!

2 500 000 000

9

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

8

Step #1: Insert an understood decimal point

Step #2: Decide where the decimal must end

up so that one number is to its left

Step #3: Count how many places you bounce

the decimal point

Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n


2.5 x 10 electrons!9

The exponent is the number of places we moved the decimal.


0.0000579 electrons!

1

2

3

4

5

Step #2: Decide where the decimal must end

up so that one number is to its left

Step #3: Count how many places you bounce

the decimal point

Step #4: Re-write in the form M x 10n


5.79 x 10 electrons!-5

The exponent is negative because the number we started with was less than 1.


PERFORMING CALCULATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC NOTATION electrons!

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


Review electrons!:

Scientific notation expresses a number in the form:

M x 10n

n is an integer

1  M  10


IF electrons! the exponents are the same, we simply add or subtract the numbers in front and bring the exponent down unchanged.

4 x 106

+ 3 x 106

7

x 106




40.0 x 10 5

4.00 x 106

Student A

+ 3.00 x 105

NO!

Is this good scientific notation?

43.00

x 105

=4.300 x 106

To avoid this problem, move the decimal on the smaller number! Make them the same as the largest number.


4.00 x 10 6

Student B

.30 x 106

+ 3.00 x 105

YES!

Is this good scientific notation?

4.30

x 106


A Problem for you…

2.37 x 10-6

+ 3.48 x 10-4


Solution…

002.37 x 10-6

2.37 x 10-6

0.0237 x 10-4

+ 3.48 x 10-4

3.5037 x 10-4


Direct proportions
Direct Proportions

  • The quotient of two variables is a constant

  • As the value of one variable increases, the other must also increase

  • As the value of one variable decreases, the other must also decrease

  • The graph of a direct proportion is a straight line


Inverse proportions
Inverse Proportions

  • The product of two variables is a constant

  • As the value of one variable increases, the other must decrease

  • As the value of one variable decreases, the other must increase

  • The graph of an inverse proportion is a hyperbola


Dimensional analysis
Dimensional Analysis

  • Dimensional Analysis (also called Factor-Label Method or the Unit Factor Method) is a problem-solving method that uses the fact that any number or expression can be multiplied by one without changing its value. It is a useful technique.

  • Unit factors may be made from any two terms that describe the same or equivalent "amounts" of what we are interested in.

  • For example, we know that

  • 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters


Unit factors
Unit Factors

  • We can make two unit factors from this information:inch = 2.54 centimeters

1inch = 2.54 centimeters

2.54 centimeters 1inch


Want units

Given units

  • When converting any unit to another there is a pattern which can be used.

  • Begin with what you are given and always multiply it in the following manner.

  • Given units X =Want units

  • You will always be able to find a relationship between your two units.

  • Fill in the numbers for each unit in the relationship.

  • Do your math from left to right, top to bottom.


Given units x want units
Given units X = Want units

Want Units

Given Units

  • (1) How many centimeters are in 6.00 inches?


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