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1914-1918: The World at War

1914-1918: The World at War

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1914-1918: The World at War

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  1. 1914-1918:The Worldat War

  2. Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

  3. Causesof theWar

  4. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

  5. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

  6. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

  7. Europe in 1914

  8. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

  9. 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries

  10. 4. Aggressive Nationalism

  11. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe “The Black Hand” pro-Serbian nationalists

  12. The“Spark”

  13. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

  14. The Assassination: Sarajevo

  15. The Assassin: GavriloPrincip

  16. Who’s To Blame? • German encirclement theory? • Ignorance of modern warfare? • M.A.I.N.

  17. What was that about? • By 1900’s, Ottoman Empire in decline • Nations had formed from Ottoman territory • Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia (Slavic group) • Serbia wanted to extend boundaries into A-H territory (Pan-Slavism…if Slavs there…it’s ok to take) • 1908 A-H took Bosnia-Herzegovina (lots of Slavic people there) • Serbia really upset. • Black Hand wanted to rid Bosnia of all A-H power

  18. Who started it? • Should have been between Serbia and Austria-Hungary • Instead…Russia backed Serbia and Germany backed A-H • A-H declares war on Serbia • Russia mobilizes troops near German and Austrian border • Germany declares war on Russia AND France • British are sucked in for the ride.

  19. The Schlieffen Plan • Attack France through neutral Belgium

  20. German Atrocities in Belgium

  21. Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!

  22. Recruitment Posters

  23. A Young Australian Recruit

  24. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians

  25. New French Recruits

  26. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

  27. Womenand theWarEffort

  28. Financing the War

  29. For Recruitment

  30. Munitions Workers

  31. French Women Factory Workers

  32. German Women Factory Workers

  33. Working in the Fields

  34. A Woman Ambulance Driver

  35. Red Cross Nurses

  36. Women in the Army Auxiliary

  37. Russian Women Soldiers

  38. Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!

  39. Posters:WartimePropaganda

  40. Australian Poster

  41. American Poster

  42. Financing the War

  43. German Poster Think of Your Children!

  44. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

  45. A Multi-Front War

  46. The Western Front

  47. Trench Warfare

  48. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

  49. Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive. • Each side had 500,000 casualties.