Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe “The Black Hand” pro-Serbian nationalists
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
Who’s To Blame? • German encirclement theory? • Ignorance of modern warfare? • M.A.I.N.
What was that about? • By 1900’s, Ottoman Empire in decline • Nations had formed from Ottoman territory • Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia (Slavic group) • Serbia wanted to extend boundaries into A-H territory (Pan-Slavism…if Slavs there…it’s ok to take) • 1908 A-H took Bosnia-Herzegovina (lots of Slavic people there) • Serbia really upset. • Black Hand wanted to rid Bosnia of all A-H power
Who started it? • Should have been between Serbia and Austria-Hungary • Instead…Russia backed Serbia and Germany backed A-H • A-H declares war on Serbia • Russia mobilizes troops near German and Austrian border • Germany declares war on Russia AND France • British are sucked in for the ride.
The Schlieffen Plan • Attack France through neutral Belgium
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!
German Poster Think of Your Children!
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive. • Each side had 500,000 casualties.