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Chapter 2 : Information Technology

Chapter 2 : Information Technology

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Chapter 2 : Information Technology

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  1. Chapter 2 :Information Technology

  2. Learning Outcome • Understand information technology • Understand and describe business hardware • Understands what is input and output • Describe Business Software • Describe types of software

  3. In the IT Age • information technology • is the ability to control machines of all types electronically • Capability to input, process, store, output, transmit, and receive data and information, including text, graphics, sound, and video electronically

  4. Sub Topics • Business Hardware • Input and Output • Business Software • Types of software

  5. Business Hardware • Back up • Printer • Phone System • Networks • Fax • Copier • Computer

  6. Business Hardware criteria • Reliability • Capability • Useable • Affordable

  7. Input & Output • Input is all information that is transferred into a computer • Examples :- • Keyboard • Mouse • Monitor • Digital Camera

  8. Input & Output • Output is information that is being transferred from a computer or electronic machine to • Examples:- • Monitor • Speaker • Printer • Projector

  9. Business Software 9 Word processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation graphics Personal Information Manager (PIM) PDA business software Software suite (for the professionals) Project management Accounting

  10. Types of Software • Systems Software • Application Software • Programming Software

  11. System Software 11 • System software are programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. • There are two types of system software: • Operating Systems. • Utility Programs.

  12. Operating System (OS) 12 It is a set of programs containing instructions that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware resources.

  13. Boot Up! 13 • Its simply the computer terminology of starting-up or restarting a computer. • There are two types of boot-ups: • Cold Boot: • Turning on computer that has been powered off. • Warm Boot: • Restarting computer that is powered on.

  14. How Does A Computer Boot-Up? 14 Step 1.Power supply sends signal to components in system unit Step 4.Results of POST are compared with data in CMOS chip Step 5.BIOS looks for system files in floppy disk drive or CD/DVD drive, and then hard disk Step 2.Processor accesses BIOS to start computer Step 6.Kernel (core) of operating system loads into RAM Step 3.BIOS runs tests, called the POST, to check components such as mouse, keyboard, and adapter cards Step 7.Operating system loads configuration information and displays desktop on screen

  15. User Interface (UI) 15 • It is the aspects of a computer system or program which can be seen (or heard or otherwise perceived) by the human user, and the commands and mechanisms the user uses to control its operation and input data. • In short, UI controls how you enter data and how information is displayed on the screen. • Command in-line interface • Menu driven interface • Graphical user interface

  16. Managing Programs 16 Certain OS can support only one user and running only one program at any one time. There are also OS that support many users running multiple programs.

  17. Multitasking 17 • Multitasking is achieved when the OS is working on two or more programs that reside in memory at same time. • When a computer is running multiple programs concurrently, one program is in the foreground, and others in the background. • Foreground contains program you are using. • Background contains programs that are running but are not in use.

  18. Memory Management 18 • The purpose of memory management: • Optimizing use of Random Access Memory. • Using Virtual Memory (VM). With VM, portion of hard disk is allocated to function as RAM.

  19. Scheduling Jobs Adjusts schedule based on job’s priority 19 A job includes: Receiving data from input device Sending information to output device A job is operation the processor manages Processing instructions Transferring items between storage and memory How does an operating system schedule jobs?

  20. SPOOLing 20 • It stands for Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line. • Commonly found when someone wishes to do printing. Print jobs are sent to buffer instead of directly to the printer. • These print jobs will line up in a queue.

  21. Device Driver 21 It is a program that tells operating system how to communicate with devices. A few years back, the user will have to manually install the device driver before the new device can be used. Now, with Plug and Play, operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them.

  22. Establishing Internet Connection 22 • How do you establish an Internet connection? • You can use MS Windows’ New Connection Wizard. • It guides user through setting up connection between computer and Internet, and this is done step-by-step.

  23. Monitoring Performances 23 Performance of the computer system can be monitored using a program called Performance Monitor, that assesses and reports information about system resources and devices.

  24. Provide File Management & Other Utilities 24 • Generally, most OS will provide the followings: • Managing files. • Viewing graphic files. • Uninstalling programs. • Scanning disks. • Defragmenting disks. • Diagnosing problems. • Backing up files and disks. • Setting up screen savers.

  25. Controlling A Network 25 • Some OS are Network Operating System (NOS). • NOS will be able to organise and coordinate how multiple users access and share resources over the network. • It allows users to share printer, Internet access, files, and programs on a network.

  26. Administer Security 26 • Security can be administered by establishing user name and password for each user. • With this, all users will have to log-on onto the system before they are allowed to use the computer system.

  27. OS UTILITY PROGRAMS 27 It is the system software that performs maintenance-type tasks.

  28. File Manager 28 It is a utility program that performs functions related to file and disk management. Example of a file manager is the Windows Explorer in Windows XP.

  29. Image Viewer 29 It is a utility that allows users to display and copy the contents of a graphic file. It displays contents of graphics file when you double click on it.

  30. Uninstaller 30 Its function is to remove a program, as well as any associated entries in the system file. An example of an uninstaller is Windows XP’s Add/Remove Programs.

  31. Disk Scanner 31 Detects and corrects problems (both physical and logical) on hard disk or floppy disk. Searches for and removes unnecessary files.

  32. Disk Defragmenter 32 Reorganizes files and unused space on hard disk so programs run faster.

  33. Diagnostic Utility 33 • Compiles technical information about system hardware and some system software. • Prepares report outlining problems. • Example of Diagnostic Utility in Windows XP is Dr. Watson.

  34. Backup Utility 34 Copies selected files or entire hard disk onto another disk or tape. Many backup programs compress (shrinking the size of) files during backup to require less storage space.

  35. Screen Saver 35 • It causes a monitor’s screen to display moving image or blank screen if there is no activity for a specified time. • To secure a computer, user configures screen saver to require password to deactivate.

  36. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM 36 • Generally, there are three types/categories of operating systems. They are: • Stand-alone. • Network. • Embedded.

  37. Characteristics Of An OS 37 Device-dependent: Runs only on specific type of computer. Device-independent: Runs on many manufacturers’ computers. Proprietary software: Privately owned and limited to specific vendor or computer model. Downward compatible: Works with application software written for earlier version of operating system. Upward compatible: Runs on new versions of operating system.

  38. Stand-Alone Operating Systems 38 DOS Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, Windows 98, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows XP, Windows Vista. Mac OS UNIX Linux

  39. Network Operating Systems (NOS) 39 NetWare Windows NT Server, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003 UNIX Linux Solaris

  40. Embedded Operating Systems 40 Windows CE .NET Windows Mobile 2003 Palm OS Symbian OS

  41. Stand-Alone Utility Programs 41 Anti-Virus program. Personal firewall. File compression utility. Personal computer maintenance.

  42. What Are Application Software? 42 • They are programs that perform specific tasks for users. • They can be used: • As a business tool. • To assist with graphics and multimedia projects. • To support home, personal, and educational activities. • To facilitate communications.

  43. Categories Of Application Software 43 • Business • Word processor • Spreadsheet • Database • Project management • Graphics and Multimedia • Computer-Aided Design • Desktop Publishing • Video and audio editing • Web page authoring • Home/Personal/Educational • Software suite • Tax preparation • Educational • Reference • Communications • E-mail • Chat room • Web browser • Video conferencing

  44. Forms Of Application Software 44 Packaged software Custom software Shareware Freeware Public-domain software

  45. Steps To Use The Application Software? 45 • Acquire the software through: • CD or Diskette. • Download from Internet. • Install the software. • May take seconds to hours. • Launch the software: • From START menu. • Link from desktop.

  46. Graphics & Multimedia Software 46 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Desktop Publishing (for the professional) Print / Image editing (for the professional) Video and Audio editing Multimedia authoring Web page authoring

  47. Software For Home, Personal, And Educational Use 47 Software suite (for personal use) Personal finance Legal Tax preparation Desktop Publishing (for personal use) Print / Image editing (for personal use) Clip Art / Image gallery Home design / landscaping Reference Entertainment software

  48. Application Software For Communication 48 E-mail FTP Web browsers Newsgroup / Message board Chat room Instant messaging Video conferencing / Telephone call

  49. Programming Software • Programmers use the programming software to develop the programming languages necessary to run computer software. • Compliers, interpreters, linkers and text editors are some of the basic tools used in programming software.

  50. Types of Language • C / C++ • Cobol • Pascal • Java