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Machinegun Theory

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  1. Tactics Certification Course (TCC) Machinegun Theory

  2. THE THEORY OFMACHINE GUN FIRE

  3. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Employ Company Organic Weapons Systems. CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

  4. SAFETY NONE Risk Assessment LOW Environmental NONE

  5. INTRODUCTION “IF ANY SINGLE EVENT CAN BE SAID TO HAVE TRANSFORMED THE HISTORY OF WARFARE, IT WAS THE PERFECTION OF THE TRUE AUTOMATIC MACHINE-GUN BY HIRAM MAXIM IN 1885. “OF ALL THE HIDEOUS WEAPONS OF WAR PRODUCED IN THE 20th CENTURY, NONE HAS EXTRACTED A MORE DREADFUL TOLL OF HUMAN LIFE THAN THE MACHINE GUN”.

  6. INTRODUCTION In 1881 Maxim, visited the Paris Electrical Exhibition. There he met a man who told him: "If you wanted to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable these Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater facility." Over the next few years Maxim worked on producing an effective machine-gun. In 1885 he demonstrated the world's first automatic portable machine-gun to the British Army. Maxim used the energy of each bullet's recoil force to eject the spent cartridge and insert the next bullet. The Maxim Machine-Gun would therefore fire until the entire belt of bullets was used up. Trials showed that the machine-gun could fire 500 rounds per minute and therefore had the firepower of about 100 rifles.

  7. INTRODUCTION “THE MACHINE GUN WILL NEVER REPLACE THE HORSE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WAR”.SIR DOUGLAS HAIG,COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCESDECEMBER 1915

  8. INTRODUCTION WORLD WAR 101 JULY 1916THE SOMMEON THE FIRST DAY OF THE ALLIED SOMME OFFENSIVE 19,000 BRITISH AND COMMONWEALTH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, AND A FURTHER 38,000 WOUNDED BY GERMAN MACHINE GUN FIRE ALONE.

  9. INTRODUCTION THE SOMME THE BRITISH III CORPS LOST 80% OF ITS EFFECTIVE STRENGTH AS IT ADVANCED ABREAST OF THE BAPAUME ROAD, BETWEEN THE TWIN VILLAGES OF LA BOISELLE AND OVILLERS, VIRTUALLY ALL OF THEM CUT DOWN BY SUSTAINED MACHINE-GUN FIRE.

  10. INTRODUCTION World War 1 THE 1914-1918 WAR KILLED AT THE VERY LEAST 9 MILLION PEOPLE, THE VAST MAJORITY OF THEM ON THE BATTLEFIELD ITSELF, AND WOUNDED A FURTHER 12.5 MILLION: A TOTAL OF 22 MILLION CASUALTIES. EVEN AT A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE, 25% OF THESE CASUALTIES WERE DUE TO MACHINE-GUN FIRE, GIVING A TOTAL OF 5.5 MILLION CASUALTIES.

  11. INTRODUCTION Modern Day AAR from action in Somalia in 1993 verified that the 7.62mm machinegun is still the Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s most lethal weapon system The bulk of an Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s organic firepower is provided by the 7.62mm Machinegun, especially in the COE of today (MOUT, Close Combat, Mountain).

  12. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe the Considerations for Machinegun Fire. CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

  13. GENERAL DATA M249 SAW 5.56mm Squad Automatic Weapon Light Machinegun

  14. GENERAL DATA – M249 • CALIBER: 5.56mm • MAXIMUM RANGE: 3600 m • MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: POINT TARGETS 600 m AREA TARGETS 800 m SUPPRESSION 1000 m • RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 85 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 850 rpm

  15. GENERAL DATA M60 7.62mm Medium Machinegun

  16. GENERAL DATA – M60 • CALIBER: 7.62mm • MAXIMUM RANGE: 3725 m • MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: 1,000m • GRAZING FIRE: 600m • TRACER BURN OUT: 900m • RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 100 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 550 rpm

  17. GENERAL DATA M240B 7.62mm Medium Machinegun

  18. GENERAL DATA – M240B • CALIBER: 7.62mm • MAXIMUM RANGE: 3725 m • MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: 1,000m • GRAZING FIRE: 600m • TRACER BURN OUT: 900m • RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 100 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 650-950 rpm

  19. GENERAL DATA M2HB .50 Cal Browning Heavy Machinegun

  20. GENERAL DATA – M2HB • CALIBER: .50 cal (12.7mm) • MAXIMUM RANGE: 6764 m (4.22 miles) • MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: POINT TARGETS: 1500 m (Single Shot) AREA TARGETS: 1830 m • RATES OF FIRE: SINGLE SHOT or CYCLIC: 450-550 rpm • TYPES OF AMMO: BALLINCENDIARY TRACERAP(ARMOR PIERCING) DUMMYAPI(ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY) BLANKAPIT(ARMOR PIERCING INCENDIARY TRACER)

  21. Browning .50 M2HB (Ma Deuce)

  22. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe & understand Machinegun Terminology. CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an over-watch /support by fire during the TEWT or FTX week of training.

  23. MACHINEGUNTERMINOLOGY

  24. Machinegun Terminology • LINE OF SIGHT • BURST OF FIRE • TRAJECTORY • MAXIMUM ORDINATE • CONE OF FIRE • BEATEN ZONE • DANGEROUS SPACE • DANGEROUS ZONE • DEAD SPACE

  25. Machinegun Terminology LINE OF SIGHT AN IMAGINARY LINE, FROM THE FIRERS EYE, THROUGH THE SIGHTS, TO THE POINT OF AIM ON THE TARGET.

  26. Machinegun Terminology BURST OF FIRE • A BURST OF FIRE IS A NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE ROUNDS FIRED WITH THE SAME ELEVATION AND POINT OF AIM WHEN THE TRIGGER IS HELD TO THE REAR. • THE NUMBER OF ROUNDS IN A BURST CAN VARY, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FIRE EMPLOYED.

  27. Machinegun Terminology TRAJECTORY TRAJECTORY IS THE CURVED PATH A ROUND TAKES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE TRAJECTORY OF A ROUND IS AFFECTED BY AIR RESISTANCE AND GRAVITY.

  28. MAXIMUM ORDINATE Machinegun Terminology MAXIMUM ORDINATE MAXIMUM ORDINATE IS THE HIGHEST POINT ABOVE THE LINE OF SIGHT TO WHICH A PROJECTILE RISES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE OCCURS APPROXIMATELY 2/3 OF THE WAY ALONG THE TRAJECTORY OF THE PROJECTILE. Example: AS THE RANGE INCREASES, SO DOES THE HEIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE.

  29. CONE OF FIRE Machinegun Terminology CONE OF FIRE THE GROUP OF TRAJECTORIES RESULTING FROM A BURST OF FIRE IS TERMED THE CONE OF FIRE. WHEN A BURST OF FIRE STRIKES A VERTICAL TARGET, THE ROUNDS WILL FORM A PATTERN, OVAL IN SHAPE, WITH THE DENSITY OF SHOTS DECREASING TOWARDS THE EDGES.

  30. BEATEN ZONE Machinegun Terminology BEATEN ZONE THE PATTERN FORMED WHEN THE CONE OF FIRE STRIKES THE GROUND IS TERMED THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OVAL OR CIGAR SHAPED AND THE DENSITY OF ROUNDS DECREASES TOWARDS THE EDGES. BECAUSE OF DISPERSION ONLY THAT PART OF THE BEATEN ZONE IN WHICH 85% OF THE ROUNDS FALL IS CONSIDERED THE EFFECTIVE BEATEN ZONE.

  31. Machinegun Terminology DANGEROUS SPACE DANGEROUS SPACE OCCURS BETWEEN THE MUZZLE OF THE MACHINE GUN AND THE POINT WHERE THE LOWEST ROUND IN THE BEATEN ZONE STRIKES THE GROUND.

  32. DANGEROUS ZONE Machinegun Terminology DANGEROUS ZONE THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS THAT AREA COVERED BY THE DANGEROUS SPACE AND THE BEATEN ZONE. FOR THE FIRE TO BE EFFECTIVE, THE TARGET MUST BE INCLUDED IN THE DANGEROUS ZONE.

  33. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION Describe the Effects of Range & Ground on the Beaten Zone. CONDITIONS Given a classroom, participation in learning and a practical periods of instructions. STANDARD Correctly perform task standards IAW ARTEP 7-8MTP in order to perform an overwatch and/or a support by fire during the TEWT.

  34. The effects of Range on the Beaten Zone

  35. RANGE: 500m 1 X 110 m RANGE: 1000m 2 X 75 m RANGE: 1500m 3 X 55 m RANGE: 2000m 4 X 50 m THE RANGE ON THE BEATEN ZONE AS RANGE INCREASES………………………………….. M240B (IT Vol 4, Pam 7, M60, 1980, Australia & RAInf Corps Trg. Notes Vol 2 Pam 6, DFSW Pl. 1995, Australia)

  36. The effects of the Ground on the Beaten Zone

  37. STEEP HILLSIDE RISING SLOPE LEVELGROUND CONFORMING GROUND THE GROUND ONTHE BEATEN ZONE

  38. DEAD SPACE

  39. DEAD SPACE DEAD SPACE ANY FOLD OR DEPRESSION IN THE GROUND THAT PREVENTS A TARGET FROM BEING ENGAGED FROM A FIXED POSITION IS TERMED DEAD SPACE.

  40. FACTORS EFFECTING THE BURST OF FIRE • The Gun & the Ammunition • The Firer • The Clarity of the Target • Air Disturbances & Weather

  41. CLASSES OF MG FIRE Machineguns produce 2 Classes of Fire with respect to the Ground: Grazing Fire or Plunging Fire The 2 factors that effect the Class of Fire produced with respect to the Ground are Range and Terrain. TYPES OF FIRE

  42. BEATEN ZONE GRAZING FIRE Grazing fire is obtained when firing over level or uniformly sloping terrain, where the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. This is approximately out to 600m. The dangerous zone, employing this type of fire, extends from the muzzle of the gun out to where the last round in the beaten zone strikes the ground.

  43. DANGEROUS ZONE CONE OF FIRE BEATEN ZONE PLUNGING FIRE PLUNGING FIRE IS ACHIEVED WHEN THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS PRACTICALLY CONFINED TO THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OBTAINED WHEN FIRING AT VERY LONG RANGES, FROM HIGH GROUND INTO LOW GROUND OR INTO ABRUPTLY RISING GROUND.

  44. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target

  45. CLASSES OF FIRE RESPECT TO TARGET FRONTAL FIRE Occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is perpendicular to the front of the target.

  46. FRONTAL FIRE

  47. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target FLANKING FIRE: Fire that is delivered directly against the flank of the target.

  48. FLANKING FIRE

  49. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target OBLIQUE FIRE: When the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front of the target.