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La alfabetización es el eje: Competencia social y aprovechamiento en lengua académica. Louise C. Wilkinson Distinguished Professor Syracuse University Presentation to the National Academy of Education of Argentina, August 27, 2007 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
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Louise C. Wilkinson
Presentation to the National Academy of Education of Argentina, August 27, 2007
The Specialized Register for Talking & Thinking in Classrooms(Cummins, 2000; Francis, 2006; Gee, 2004)
Academic Language Use (Specialized Varieties – More Literate)
Everyday Language Use (Vernacular Varieties – More Oral)
Secondary Discourse Abilities
Face-Face Conversational Abilities
Advanced Literacy-related Language Abilities
Primary Discourse Abilities
Metacognitive & Metalinguistic Awareness Strategies
Does Not Predict Academic Achievement
Associated with Academic
Are independent, but interdependent (Cummins, 2000)
Rate of Growth of New Derivational Meanings, Grades 1-5: Word Formation Processes (Nagy, Berninger, Abbott, Vaughan, & Vermeulen, 2003; Nagy, Berninger, & Abbott, 2006)
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The early catastrophe. American Educator, 27(1), 4-9.
45 million words
From: Farkas, G., & Beron, K. (2004). The detailed age trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge: Differences by race and class. Social Science Research, 33, 464-497 (14-year longitudinal study of large national data sets)
Sandra had won the dance contest, and the audience cheers brought her to the stage for an encore. “Every step she takes is so perfect and graceful,” Ginny saidgrudgingly as she watched Sandra dance (a misdirective context) (Beck et al., 2002, p. 4)
2. I’ve heard of it, but I don’t know what it means
4. I know it
Man, these books have too many words!!!
Semantic networks -- Integration of thematic relations, e.g., lion-roars, with superordinate relations (class membership), e.g., lion - gorilla
LEXICAL BREADTH (Scope)
“One has to deal with life’s vicissitudes”
Word Reading & Spelling
Knowledge (Conceptual Understanding)
Accurate & Fluent Decoding/Encoding of Real Words
Ms. K: Good afternoon.
Darleen: Salutations, Ms. K.!
Ms. K.: So, how was recess?
Thomas: Exhausting. We played football!
Laura: Delightful. There was a lovely breeze.
Jorge: Abbreviated. It was too short for me!
“No single encounter (experience) with a word needs to produce all of these types of knowledge” (Graves, 2006, p .61)
Narrow, context-bound, e.g.,
Know ‘radiant’ in one situation, but not able to use in another situation
Rich, elaborated meaning (multiple meanings available), e.g., ‘devouring’
“Choices about what specific words to teach [in school materials] are quite arbitrary”(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002, p. 20)