CPL2 561 781. North America and Global Economy. WTO Doha Round: Japan’s Position. Presented by:. Kyoo Son 260099687. Minh Ho 260204029. Table of Content. Agriculture Services Market Access for Non-Agricultural Products TRIPS Singaporean Issues Fisheries Dispute Settlement
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North America and Global Economy
Three possible types of formulas
African countries wanted the simplification in notifications to import generic drugs
Japanese position is that the notification obligations such as specifying in advance the name and the exact quantity is necessary to ensure drugs are not re-exported.
The position is shared by developed countries like EU, Switzerland and US who are major patented medicines producers.
Discussions on these issues have largely focused on whether the TRIPS Agreement should be made to require applicants to disclose the country of origin and source of any genetic material/TK used either in the research and development process and/or directly in the invention they seek to patent. This could include providing evidence of prior informed consent of the country/community of origin, and how they intend to share the benefits arising from the commercialization of the invention with the country/ community of origin.
Japan and US are firmly opposed. They believe it will be a burden to patent system
US and Japan hold respectively 40% and 14% of biotechnological patents. They are the largest patent holders (OECD 2002 report).
Singapore issues included discussions in areas such as government procurement, investment, competition and trade facilitation. Only trade facilitation remained on the negotiation table in this Round.
Japan pushed for multilateral rules regarding the investment that could replace existing bilateral investment rules
It issued reports that lack of transparency, regulations, laws and lack of information were major obstacles for Japanese firms investing in foreign countries
In trade facilitation issue, Japan, the EC, Canada and the United States had submitted proposals that would require clarification of customs procedures, including fees, penalties, appeal of decisions, and introduction of an advance ruling system
Developing countries are against on these issues because of lack of resources in implementing those rules and the sovereignty issues
Friends of Fish countries asked for elimination of fisheries subsidies to promote environment and trade. They stated that subsidies were responsible for depletion of fishing stocks.
Japan stated subsidies themselves are not causing illegal fishing or depletion of reserves. The fish stock depletion was caused by inadequate management. But, in 2004 report, it stated there should be some disciplines regarding subsidies.
Friends of Fish favor for bottom-up-approach that prohibits for general elimination of subsidies with some exemptions
Japan favors for top-down approach. Position shared by Taiwan and Korea