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COPD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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COPD. Joshua Jewell. Epidemiology . 8% of all individuals 10% age >40 6 th leading cause of death worldwide 1990 4 th in U.S. - >120,000 Expected 3 rd 2020. Impact. NHBLI 2005 $38.8 billion $21.8 billion direct $17 billion indirect

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slide1

COPD

Joshua Jewell

epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • 8% of all individuals
  • 10% age >40
  • 6th leading cause of death worldwide 1990
  • 4th in U.S. - >120,000
  • Expected 3rd 2020
impact
Impact
  • NHBLI 2005 $38.8 billion
    • $21.8 billion direct
    • $17 billion indirect
  • 2006 – COPD to cost > 800 billion over next 20 years
  • 2005 estimate of $3,000-6,000 annual cost per pt
  • Excess annual cost of $6,000
definition
Definition
  • “COPD is a preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary effects that may contribute to the severity in individual patients. Its pulmonary component is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases” NHLBI and WHO
types
Types
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma
  • Mixed Variety
evaluation
Evaluation
  • History
    • Family
    • Smoking
    • Environmental
  • Symptoms
    • Cough
    • Dyspnea
    • Sputum Production
    • Wheeze
    • Recurrent Respiratory Illness
  • Physical Exam
evaluation1
Evaluation
  • Pulmonary Function Tests
    • GOLD criteria
  • Imaging
    • CXR – 50% sensitivity
    • CT
  • ABG
staging
Staging
  • GOLD – FEV1/FVC <70%
    • I Mild ≥ 80%
    • II Moderate 50% ≥ - <80%
    • III Severe 30% ≥ - <50%
    • IV Very Severe <30%
  • BODE
    • FEV1
    • 6 min walk test
    • MMRC dyspnea scale
    • BMI
treatment goal
Treatment Goal
  • Prevent and decrease symptoms
  • Reduce frequency and severity of exacerbations
  • Improve health status
  • Improve exercise capacity
  • Improve overall associated health care costs
therapy
Therapy
  • Patient education
  • Avoid risk factors
  • Annual flu vaccine
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • 0xygen therapy
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation
management
Management
  • Mild COPD
    • PRN SABA
  • Moderate COPD
    • PRN SABA
    • Single or double long acting bronchodilator
    • Rehabilitation
management1
Management
  • Severe COPD
    • PRN SABA
    • Long acting bronchodilator – generally two forms
    • Rehabilitation
    • +/- Inhaled glucocorticoid therapy
management2
Management
  • Very Severe COPD
    • PRN SABA
    • Combination long acting bronchodilator therapy
    • +/- ICS
    • Treatment of complications
    • Rehabilitation
    • +/- oxygen therapy
    • ? Surgical treatments
acute exacerbation
Acute Exacerbation
  • NHLBI and WHO
  • “acute increase in symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation”
    • Cough increasing in frequency and severity
    • Sputum production increase in volume and/or changes character
    • Increase in dyspnea
  • 70-80% due to respiratory infections
evaluation2
Evaluation
  • History and physical
  • Cxr
  • Routine labs
  • ABG
  • Sputum gram stain with c/s
evaluation for hospitalization
Evaluation for Hospitalization
  • Inadequate response of symptoms to op management
  • Marked increase in dyspnea
  • Inability to eat or sleep due to symptoms
  • Worsening hypoxemia
  • Worsening hypercapnea
  • Changes in mental status
  • Inability to care for oneself
  • Uncertain diagnosis
  • High risk comorbidities
treatment
Treatment
  • SABA
  • Short acting anticholinergic bronchodilators
  • Glucocorticoids
    • Oral vs IV
  • Empiric antibiotic therapy
  • Supplemental oxygen
  • +/- Mechanical Ventilation
prognosis and prevention
Prognosis and Prevention
  • 14% 3 month mortality
  • 6 and 12 month mortality 33 and 43% for acute exacerbation and PaC02 ≥ 50mmHg
  • Upon Resolution insure
    • Smoking cessation
    • Avoidance of environmental triggers
    • Pulmonary rehabilitation
    • Proper use of medications
    • Update vaccinations
    • “action plan” – via PCP
mild exacerbation
MILD Exacerbation
  • 45 yo smoker presents to ED w 5 day h/o cough, yellow sputum, low grade temp. Ran out of albuterol today. Never intubated. Vitals 94% on ra, rr 20/min. Exam w moderate wheeze. CXR negative.
    • Steroids
    • Short acting bronchodilators
    • +/- Abx
  • Discharge with PCP follow up, counsel on tobacco cessation
moderate
Moderate
  • 65 yo smoker, h/o htn/cad/dm, presents w sob, cough, yellow sputum and cp. Was able to only sleep few hours last night, upright in chair. Used nebs q4 hours x 2 days. Admitted twice in past 2 years for COPD exacerbation, never intubated. Vitals 91% on ra, rr 30/min, diffuse wheeze. CXR, ecg, trop unremarkable. While in ED albuterol/ipatroprium nebs x 4, prednisone, and avelox with good effect. After 4 hrs pt felt much better, upon ambulation w pulse ox pt desaturated to 86% on ra and became very sob.
  • Admit to medical floor
  • Steroids
  • Scheduled/prn breathing treatment
  • Antibiotics
  • Sputum culture/sensitivity
  • Smoking cessation counseling
severe
Severe
  • 65 year old smoker, h/o cad s/p 3v cabg, dm, and htn; was up all night using a nebs every 2-3 hrs. Pt only able to speak in short sentences. On arrival, the O2 sat was 84% on raand rrwas 35/min. In route, pt received albuterol and ipatropiumnebs. In ED, the pt is using accessory muscles, intercostal retractions, and has pursed lip breathing w blue lips. Additional nebs tx and iv steroids are given with minimal improvement. Pt receives broad spectrum abx. Cxr and EKG show no acute changes. NPPV is applied. Initially pt improves with a decreased work of breathing. However, after 1 hr the pt becomes more somnolent with a decreased rr. An ABG is obtained with a 7.25/60/59/89%
    • Intubate
    • Inhaled therapy
    • Steroids
    • Abx
    • Sputum c/s
    • Basic lab evaluation
    • Repeat abg at 1 hour