Fuel Cell Overview. Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training Seminar July 23 – 27, 2007. Fuel Cell Origins. William Grove of England in 1839 developed the first fuel cell He combined gases to produce electricity and water Grove called it a “gas battery”.
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Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training Seminar July 23 – 27, 2007
Fuel Cell Origins • William Grove of England in 1839 developed the first fuel cell • He combined gases to produce electricity and water • Grove called it a “gas battery”
William Grove and his “Gas Battery” • William Grove's drawing of an experimental"gas battery" from an 1843 letter • Image from Proceedings of the Royal Society
Fuel Cells and Energy • A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts energy produced from a chemical reaction into electrical energy • This chemical reaction is not a combustion process
Fuel Cells and Energy • More specifically it is a conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity, heat, and water. • Chemical Energy Electrical Energy
How does the Fuel Cell operate? (battery comparison)similar in converting chemical energy to electrical energy but different in that A battery’s reactants are self-contained A fuel cell’s reactants are supplied externally - + H2 in Air in + - H2 out Air out
Converting DC to AC Fuel cells produce direct current, or D/C, electricity. Alternating current, or A/C, is the electrical standard for most uses such as home or building power. Another device called a power inverter is used to change the electricity from D/C to A/C.
Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? US cannot produce enough oil to meet demand, and it consumes much of it Produces only 9% of global supply, Has only 3% of global reserve, Consumes 26% of world’s oil (20 million barrels / day) US daily supply increased from 36% (1975), to 55% (2001), and expected to increase to 62% by 2020 Demand for energy is increasing (estimated to grow by 54% worldwide) due to a changing world economy (China). Demand for gasoline is reflected at the pump
Intro to Fuel Cell Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? The growing dependence on oil puts us at serious risk Shipment interruption of oil for prolonged time could disrupt the nation economy (transport product, drive to work, fly to meetings, heat and light homes and businesses) We need alternative energy sources for homeland security and fuel cells are one of these sources
Intro to Fuel Cell More Reasons Why Air pollution and the environment Burned gasoline produces poisonous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons that cause smog (ozone) and contribute to climate change and increase in the planet’s temperature One burned gallon of gas releases around 6.5 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (when the entire fuel cycle, including production, transportation, storage, and use are considered)
CO2 From Burning Gasoline • If perfect combustion was produced in a car’s engine, we would obtain the following: Gasoline + Oxygen CO2 + H2O + Heat In a fuel cell that only uses hydrogen the reaction is: Hydrogen + Oxygen H2O + Heat
CO2 From Burning Gasoline • If we burned 20 gallons of gas in a car and convert our chemical reaction to pounds 2C8H18 + 25O2 16CO2 + 18H2O 122 lbs + 427 lbs 375lbs + 174 lbs
Fuel cell applications (3 main categories) Transportation (cars, buses, recreation vehicles) Mobile, small size (laptops, cellular phones, hearing aids, heart pacemakers) Stationary, power generation: generators for homes (can also heat the house and the water tank), back-up power for hospitals and factories, power plants
Fuel Cells For Transportation • In transportation applications the inverter to AC in not needed • When hydrogen is available the reformer is not needed
Fuel cell applications Cell phones that don’t quit in mid conversation because the batteries have died Laptop computers that run all day without power cords Efficient automobiles that emit virtually no nitrogen oxide or hydrocarbon pollutants
Fuel cell applications Tiny self-powered gas sensors built on integrated circuits Home electrical systems that keep working even if the power grid fails Sensors, electronic weapons, and communication gear for soldiers in the field Replacement for Li ion batteries in portable electronic devices
Intro to Fuel CellWhat are the types of fuel cell applications?
Similarities Between Fuel Cells and Batteries • A fuel cell is very similar to a battery in that a battery also converts chemical energy to electrical energy • The electricity produced is DC • Both use an electrolyte to conduct ions
Fuel Cells and Batteries Differences • A battery is an energy storage device that has a fixed amount of chemical energy • A fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is supplied • Fuel cell reactions do not degrade over time
Fuels In a Fuel Cell • Most fuel cells commonly use hydrogen and oxygen • Because hydrogen is not readily availably, fuel cell systems often include another system called a fuel reformer or fuel processor that extracts hydrogen from hydrocarbons such as natural gas.
FUEL CELL TYPES PEMFC (proton exchange membrane) DMFC (direct methanol) SOCF (solid oxide) AFC (alkaline) PAFC (phosphoric acid) MCFC (Molten Carbonate)
Factors Promoting Fuel Cell Applications in Cars • If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, andmore than 1 million tons of air pollutants • Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions • When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) • Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO2
Intro to Fuel Cell Why Fuel Cell? (properties) If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, and more than 1 million tons of air pollutants Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO2
Factors Influencing Fuel Cells • “Carbon Neutral” A growing movement primarily in western countries promoting a lifestyle that on balance does not add carbon to the environment • Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations -assigning mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nations • President Bush’s “Twenty in Ten” Plan mandatory standards to raise production of renewable fuels to 35 billion gallons per year by 2017
Summary • A fuel cell is a battery that produces DC current and voltage • Most fuel cells use hydrogen which burns cleaner compared to hydrocarbon fuels • A fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is supplied • The energy efficiency of fuel cells is high when compared to many other energy systems • There is great interest in fuel cells for automotive and electronic applications • There will be employment for technicians particularly in Ohio’s fuel cell industry.
Resources • “Intro to PEM Fuel Cells” PowerPoint Presentation by Katrina M. Fritz of Case Western Reserve University, July 2005 Workshop at Stark State University